Some critics have accused Ellen White of plagiarizing the contents of The Desire of Ages from the writings of various authors. But, did she really? Below is an analysis of one chapter of The Desire of Ages for which examples of alleged plagiarism are given. This particular one is from Rea (pages 318-9) and from Dr. Veltman's study (pages 733-91 with the evidence on pages 737-56). In addition we will include material from Walter Rea found online at ellenwhite.org. There Rea simply claims that Ellen G. White was "paraphrasing" pages 413-420* of Daniel March's Night Scenes in the Bible when she wrote this chapter. One advantage of presenting all at the same time is that it allows us to compare and contrast how the two handled the same evidence.
* In typing up the material from Daniel March I discovered that Rea refers to pages 413-430 in March as being paraphrased in Ellen G. White's Desire of Ages pages 795-808--chapter 83 ends at page 801, chapter 84 begins on page 802. As you will discover when examining chapter 84 he should have ended his reference at page 804.
It has been noted by students of plagiarism that one can make a work look plagiarized when it is not by carefully using ellipses and discarding all the material that is dissimilar. What we want to do here is to determine whether the critics did a fair analysis, or whether their comparisons actually distorted the real situation. Accordingly, we have color-coded the text so that you, the reader, can easily come to your own conclusion. Material that is not coded means that neither the critics nor Dr. Veltman and his team of researchers, could not, or did not, find anything worthy of note.
Material in Ellen G. White that is an exact, word-for-word match to her alleged source.
Material in Ellen G. White that is similar to her alleged source.
Words that are either an exact match to Biblical material.
Material that is represented in either Rea's book or Dr. Veltman's study by an ellipsis.
Material dropped from the beginning or end of the paragraph of the alleged source in Rea's book The White Lie.
Material clipped from the beginning or end of a sentence in Rea's book, without giving the reader any indication of such. (Either a capital letter or a period appears where it should not, hiding the fact that material is missing.)
Material that was mis-capitalized or mis-abbreviated in Rea.
Typical author's caveat: all errors are, of course, mine. If you find any errors please let me know and I'll fix them.
March, Night Scenes in the Bible. (Zeigler, McCurdy & Co., 1868), page 413
(this material is referred to in the above mentioned web site and is not color-coded as there is no corresponding material in Ellen G. White)
The two great facts which complete and confirm everything else in the gospel history are the crucifixion and the resurrection. The appointed sacrifice of redemption itself is indeed finished when Jesus bowed his head in death on the cross. But the Divine seal was set to the sacrifice, and the full and final witness was given to the world when Jesus rose from the dead. We therefore truly say that the two greatest days in the world's history are the Friday when darkness veiled the awful scene upon Calvary, and the following Sunday when the white-robed angel, with a countenance like lightning, rolled away the stone from the door of the tomb where the body of Jesus was laid. The extraordinary events of those two days have exerted a controlling influence upon the history of the world ever since, and they are still doing more than great battles and mighty revolutions in forming the character and fixing the destiny of individuals and nations.
These events were all purposed and sure in the Infinite Mind. But to human judgment the most dis-
mal night that ever cast its shadows upon the hearts and hopes of men was the last night that the body of Jesus rested in the grave. The brightest morning that ever rose upon a darkened and death-stricken world was the morning when the two Marys ran with wonder and joy from the garden of Joseph to the gate of Jerusalem, to tell the disciples that the tomb was empty and the Lord was risen. The disappointed and disheartened disciples refused to believe the words of the trembling and excited women. And when the tidings came again that Mary Magdalene had seen Jesus himself alive in the garden, and that a vision of angels had appeared to others and had positively affirmed the fact of the resurrection, still they believed it not.
The day which might most fitly have been spent in rejoicing was one of confusion and perplexity of mind to them, because the awful and glorious event of the resurrection surpassed the utmost reach of their faith. Friday had taken from them their living Master, and now it seemed that Sunday would deprive them of the last sad privilege of embalming his dead body in the tomb. Alas! how often do the sad thoughts of the afflicted linger about the grave and cling to the perishable form of the beloved who sleep in Jesus, forgetful of the angel-voice which speaks from the tomb, "He is not here, he is risen!" The great fact of an actual rising from the dead, a continual and glorified life after death has done its worst upon the suffering body, is still what believers themselves find it hardest to be-
lieve. They still find it easier to talk of their lost friends and buried hopes and broken hearts than of the better life and blessed home to which the disciples of Jesus go through the gate of the tomb.
March, page 415; continuing from above
It will help us to correct our false impressions, and discipline our hearts to faith and patience, if we observe the fears and fluctuations of mind through which the disciples passed on the first day and evening after the resurrection. Late in the afternoon two of the number resolved to give up all further inquiry and suspense, and go home to quiet their excited and weary minds in a little village eight miles away from Jerusalem. As nearly as can be ascertained they went out of the city at its western gate, and pursued their evening walk with sad looks and heavy hearts. As nearly as can be ascertained they went out of the city at its western gate, and pursued their evening walk with sad looks and heavy hearts. The path which they were to follow was one of the most dreary and desolate in all Palestine. First, they had to pass two miles over a bleak and barren level of loose stones and sun-dried earth and naked slabs of rock.
Hanna, The Life of Christ. (American Tract Society, date unknown), page 795
They had occupied no prominent place beside the Savior in the course of his ministry.
[skipping over 21 sentences, to page 796]
And then besides, there was what they had heard just before they left the city--the report of some women that they had gone out, and found the sepulchre empty, and had seen angels, who had told them that he was alive.
March, page 415; picking up where we left off before
I think it must have been somewhere on the cheerless mountain ridge, at the beginning of their walk, that they saw a stranger coming up from behind with a quicker step, and silently joining their company.
Hanna, page 795
But they are so intent upon the topic which engrosses them, that they notice not that a stranger has overtaken them, and been in part a listener to their discourse.
March, page 415; we are picking up where we left off above.
They were so busy with their sad thoughts, and he was so gentle and courteous in his approach, that they kept on in their conversation as if they were still alone.
Hanna, page 796
What a confused heap of difficulties must have risen up before these two men's eyes as they reasoned by the way!
The Walk to Emmaus
[This chapter is based on Luke 24:13-33.]
Late in the afternoon of the day of the resurrection, two of the disciples were on their way to Emmaus, a little town eight miles from Jerusalem.1 These disciples had had no prominent place in Christ's work, but they were earnest believers in Him.2 They had come to the city to keep the Passover, and were greatly perplexed by the events that had recently taken place. They had heard the news of the morning in regard to the removal of Christ's body from the tomb, and also the report of the women who had seen the angels and had met Jesus.3 They were now returning to their homes to meditate and pray. Sadly they pursued their evening walk, talking over the scenes of the trial and the crucifixion. Never before had they been so utterly disheartened.4 Hopeless and faithless, they were walking in the shadow of the cross.
They had not advanced far on their journey when they were joined by a stranger,5 but they were so absorbed in their gloom and disappointment that they did not observe him closely.6 They continued their conversation, expressing the thoughts of their hearts.7 They were reasoning in regard to the lessons that Christ had given, which they seemed unable to comprehend.8 As they talked of the events that had taken place, Jesus longed to comfort them. He had seen their grief; He understood the conflicting, perplexing ideas that brought to their minds the thought,
1 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase). Note that none of the words is other than a statement of fact. Here's what Hanna had written:
It was towards evening; the day was far spent when the two disciples reached Emmaus;
yet there was enough time for them, after they dined, to return by daylight to Jerusalem,
(a distance of about seven miles, a two or three hours walk,) and to be present at that evening meeting,
in the midst of which Jesus was seen by them once more.
It is interesting to note that in other chapters William Hanna's book is considered to be the primary source for Ellen G. White. But on this point Ellen G. White did not "choose to use him". Why?
For some odd reason the phrase "eight miles away from Jerusalem" was dropped from March in Dr. Veltman's study. Return to text
2 In Dr. Veltman's study the first half of this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase). The last half is considered to be I2 (partial independence). Return to text
3 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase). Return to text
4 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase). The previous sentence, despite some verbal similarity with March, is rated as I2 (partial independence). Return to text
5 In Dr. Veltman's study this half of the sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase). Return to text
6 In Dr. Veltman's study this half of the sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase). Return to text
7 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase). Return to text
8 In Dr. Veltman's study the first half of this sentence is rated as B1 (source Bible) and the last half as P2 (simple paraphrase); note that only the former has any verbal similarity with Ellen G. White's text. Return to text
That sadness, who can tell what power it had in drawing the Man of sorrows to their side? It was to Mary, weeping in her lonely grief; to Peter, drowned in tears of penitence--that he had already appeared. And now it is to these two disciples in their sorrow that he joins himself: so early did the risen Saviour assume the gracious office of comforting those who mourn, of binding up the broken heart.
[now we skip over 3 full pages to Hanna, 799]
Thus it is, by questions needless for him on his own account to put, but very useful to them to answer, that Jesus draws out from them that statement, which at once reveals the extent of their ignorance and incredulity, but, at the same time, the amount of their belief, the strength of their attachment to Christ, and the bitterness of that grief which the disappointment of their expectations regarding him had created.
March, page 415; again picking up where we left off.
He saw that their faces were sad, and that their words came forth from burdened and sorrowing hearts. He gently drew from them the cause of their grief; and in a few
moments he entered into their feelings with so much earnestness, tenderness, and sympathy, that their hearts burned within them while he spoke. They wondered who he could be, and they expressed their wonder by silent glances at each other, while he went on with them and talked all the way. But they did not dare to ask him, or in any way to interrupt the flow of his gracious words, while he opened to them the Scriptures, and showed them how Christ must needs suffer and by suffering enter into His glory.
Can this Man, who suffered Himself to be so humiliated, be the Christ? Their grief could not be restrained, and they wept. Jesus knew that their hearts were bound up with Him in love, and He longed to wipe away their tears, and fill them with joy and gladness.9 But He must first give them lessons they would never forget.
"He said unto them, What manner of communications are these that ye have one to another, as ye walk, and are sad? And the one of them, whose name was Cleopas, answering said unto Him, Art Thou only a stranger in Jerusalem, and hast not known the things which are come to pass there in these days?" They They told Him of their disappointment in regard to their Master, "which was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people;" but "the chief priests and our rulers," they said, "delivered Him to be condemned to death, and have crucified Him."10 With hearts sore with disappointment, and with quivering lips, they added, "We trusted that it had been He which should have redeemed Israel: and beside all this, today is the third day since these things were done."
Strange that the disciples did not remember Christ's words, and realize that He had foretold the events which had come to pass! They did not realize that the last part of His disclosure would be just as verily fulfilled as the first part, that the third day He would rise again. This was the part they should have remembered. The priests and rulers did not forget this. On the day "that followed the day of the preparation, the chief priests and Pharisees came together unto Pilate, saying, Sir, we remember that that deceiver said, while He was yet alive, After three days I will rise again." Matt. 27:62, 63. But the disciples did not remember these words.
"Then He said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken: ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into His glory?" The disciples wondered who this stranger could be, that He should penetrate to their very souls, and speak with such earnestness, tenderness, and sympathy, and with such hopefulness.11 For the first time since Christ's betrayal, they began to feel hopeful. Often they looked earnestly at their companion, and thought that His words were just the words that Christ would have spoken. They were filled with amazement, and their hearts began to throb with joyful expectation.
Beginning at Moses, the very Alpha of Bible history, Christ expounded in all the Scriptures the things concerning Himself.* Had He
9 In Dr. Veltman's study the first half of this sentence is rated as I1 (strict independence) and the last half of this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase)--see Hanna's page 795. Note that in the previous sentence the word "grief" appears--so, is that sentence also I2 (partial independence) like the previous? Return to text
10 In Dr. Veltman's study the first half of this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 799) and the rest rated as B2 (Bible). Return to text
11 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase). Return to text
* This is a quote from Scripture; see the paragraph from Hanna on the next table. Perhaps we need another category where Ellen G. White is paraphrasing Scripture?
Hanna, page 799
The stranger's end is gained. The wound has been gently probed; its nature and extent revealed; and how the remedy is to be applied. He who has asked to be informed, takes the place of the instructor; he who had asked to be informed, takes the place of the instructor; "O fools, and slow of heart to believe!" Slow of heart indeed, and difficult to convince had they been, who, after such explicit declarations of his own beforehand, that he should be delivered up to the rulers, and suffer many things at their hands, and be crucified, and rise again the third day, had nevertheless remained so obstinate in their incredulity. Truly the rebuke was needed. Yet how faithful are the wounds of a friend; he wounds but to heal; he rebukes the unbelief, but instantly proceeds to remove its grounds, even as he rose from his slumber in the storm-tossed fishing boat, first to rebuke the disciples for their unbelieving fears, and then to quiet the tempest which had produced them. The one great, misleading prejudice of the disciples had ben their belief that the path of the promised Messiah was only to be one of triumph and of glory. To rectify that error, it was only required that they should be made to see that the predicted triumph and glory were alone to be reached through the dark avenues of suffering and of death. "O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken: ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory? And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself." [Luke 24:25-7]
Either Christ, then, is
not himself to be believed--in which case it were useless to hear and read anything about him--or in those Old Testament Scriptures there are to be seen everywhere prophetic fingers pointing forward to Him. To search those scriptures, and to find little or nothing there of Christ, little or nothing to show how it behooved him to suffer, and then to enter into his glory, is to handle them after a very different fashion from that in which they were handled by our Lord himself.
first made Himself known to them, their hearts would have been satisfied. In the fullness of their joy they would have hungered for nothing more. But it was necessary for them to understand the witness borne to Him by the types and prophecies of the Old Testament. Upon these their faith must be established. Christ performed no miracle to convince them, but it was His first work to explain the Scriptures. They had looked upon His death as the destruction of all their hopes. Now He showed from the prophets that this was the very strongest evidence for their faith.
In teaching these disciples, Jesus showed the importance of the Old Testament as a witness to His mission.12 Many professed Christians now discard the Old Testament, claiming that it is no longer of any use. But such is not Christ's teaching. So highly did He value it that at one time He said, "If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead." Luke 16:31.
It is the voice of Christ that speaks through patriarchs and prophets, from the days of Adam even to the closing scenes of time. The Saviour is revealed in the Old Testament as clearly as in the New. It is the light from the prophetic past that brings out the life of Christ and the teachings of the New Testament with clearness and beauty. The miracles of Christ are a proof of His divinity; but a stronger proof that He is the world's Redeemer is found in comparing the prophecies of the Old Testament with the history of the New.
Reasoning from prophecy, Christ gave His disciples a correct idea of what He was to be in humanity. Their expectation of a Messiah who was to take His throne and kingly power in accordance with the desires of men had been misleading. It would interfere with a correct apprehension of His descent from the highest to the lowest position that could be occupied. Christ desired that the ideas of His disciples might be pure and true in every specification. They must understand as far as possible in regard to the cup of suffering that had been apportioned to Him. He showed them that the awful conflict which they could not yet comprehend was the fulfillment of the covenant made before the foundation of the world was laid. Christ must die, as every transgressor of the law must die if he continues in sin. All this was to be, but it was not to end in defeat, but in glorious, eternal victory. Jesus told them that every effort must be made to save the world from sin. His followers must live as He lived, and work as He worked, with intense, persevering effort.
12 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase). Return to text
[March, page 416; picking up from where we were before.]
And so the three walked on together, the delighted and wondering disciples not knowing that they were listening to their lamented and risen Lord. They hear his step upon the stony road just like their own. He labors with panting breath in climbing the steep place, and he moves with cautious tread in descending the slippery path, just as they do. Nothing in his dress, or manner, or person, leads them to suspect that he can be anything else than one of the pilgrims returning from the great feast to some distant home.
Having passed over the rocky platform immediately west of Jerusalem, on what is now the Ramleh road, they turn to take their last look of the city, and brush away a silent tear at the fresh remembrance of all they had seen and suffered there within the last few days.A Then they plunge down into a narrow glen, and make their way cautiously over a dreary waste of bare ledges and confused drifts of gravel and rubble stone. They cross the dry bed of a torrent, and then climb slowly
up a winding and zig-zag path cut in the limestone rock to the crest of another ridge. This height is no sooner gained than they begin another descent, again to climb a long, steep, and winding track over loose stones and ledges that have been worn smooth by winter rains and spring torrents and the feet of travellers for centuries.
And all the way the Divine Saviour, the Son of God, who could say, "All power is given unto Me in heaven and in earth," walks with these two men, taking as many steps as they, and talking all the while as they go up and down the steep places together. He spends more time in this long and laborious conversation with these two sad and despondent men than with all others on the first day of his resurrection life. This might Conqueror of death, who had unbarred the gates of the tomb for a lost world, would thus teach us his readiness to be with us and comfort our hearts in the hardest paths we have to tread. In his risen and glorified state he is still the Son of Man, having all the sympathies and affections of the human heart. He is still as near to those who desire his company as he was before he passed through the awful transformation of the cross and the tomb.
The sun has gone down behind the gray hill-tops, and the shadows of evening have begun to deepen in the narrow valleys, and the laborers have left the terraced orchards and vineyards on the hill-sides, before the two travellers reach their journey's end, and beg the kindly
stranger to go in and abide with them for the night.B
Hanna, page 802, skipping over _83 lines of text_ from where we were before.
But how can they part from him? How may that conversation, which has shed such a fresh light into their understandings, such a new hope into their hearts, be prolonged?
March, page 418; picking up from where we were before.
He would have gone farther, and they would not have recognized their Lord, had they not yielded to the impulse which His words had kindled in their hearts, and urged him to stay. He never forces himself upon any. He joins the company of many who are toiling along the hard journey of life, He interests Himself in the sorrows that press them down, He warms their hearts with His words of love; but if they fail to ask Him to abide with them, He passes on and they know Him not. It is towards evening, and the day of life is far spent with some to whom Jesus has often drawn near in the way; the shadows of the evening are gathering thick around them, and yet they have never said to Him with earnest and longing desire, "Abide with us." The humblest home becomes a palace fit for a king when Jesus enters in to tarry there. And without him the most splendid mansion on earth can give no rest to the weary soul. Blessed is the home and sweet is the rest of those who let no evening pass without offering the prayer to him who walked from Jerusalem to Emmaus with the two disciples: "Abide with us."
It was only to draw forth the invitation to stay that Jesus made as if he would have gone farther. When asked he entered without delay. The three weary travellers sat down together in that lowly cottage home, and the mysterious stranger continued to speak His heart-burning words while waiting for the evening meal. When bread, the simple fare of the poor, was
set before them, he put forth his hands to bless it. But what now so suddenly startles the wondering disciples? They see the print of the nails in the open palms, the sign and scar of the cross. [see below for the rest of the paragraph]
Thus Christ discoursed to His disciples, opening their minds that they might understand the Scriptures. The disciples were weary, but the conversation did not flag. Words of life and assurance fell from the Saviour's lips. But still their eyes were holden. As He told them of the overthrow of Jerusalem, they looked upon the doomed city with weeping.13 But little did they yet suspect who their traveling companion was.14 They did not think that the subject of their conversation was walking by their side; for Christ referred to Himself as though He were another person. They thought that He was one of those who had been in attendance at the great feast, and who was now returning to his home.15 He walked as carefully as they over the rough stones, now and then halting with them for a little rest.16 Thus they proceeded along the mountainous road, while the One who was soon to take His position at God's right hand, and who could say, "All power is given unto Me in heaven and in earth," walked beside them. Matt. 28:18.17
During the journey the sun had gone down, and before the travelers reached their place of rest, the laborers in the fields had left their work.18 As the disciples were about to enter their home, the stranger appeared as though He would continue His journey. But the disciples felt drawn to Him.19 Their souls hungered to hear more from Him.20 "Abide with us," they said. He did not seem to accept the invitation, but they pressed it upon Him, urging, "It is toward evening, and the day is far spent." Christ yielded to this entreaty and "went in to tarry with them."
Had the disciples failed to press their invitation, they would not have known that their traveling companion was the risen Lord.21 Christ never forces His company upon anyone.22 He interests Himself in those who need Him.23 Gladly will He enter the humblest home, and cheer the lowliest heart.24 But if men are too indifferent to think of the heavenly Guest, or ask Him to abide with them, He passes on.25 Thus many meet with great loss. They do not know Christ any more than did the disciples as He walked with them by the way.
The simple evening meal of bread is soon prepared.26 It is placed before the guest, who has taken His seat at the head of the table.27 Now He puts forth His hands to bless the food.28 The disciples start back in astonishment.29 Their companion spreads forth His hands in exactly the same way as their Master used to do.30 They look again, and lo, they see in His hands the print of nails.31 Both exclaim at once, It is the Lord Jesus! He has risen from the dead!32
13 In Rea's book he clips the sentence in March at both ends and then bounces back a page. In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as I2 (partial independence). Return to text
14 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase). No verbal similarity is found with the alleged source in March. Return to text
15 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase). Return to text
16 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase). There is no verbal similarity with the alleged source in March. Return to text
17 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase). The only words that are exactly verbally similar between Ellen G. White's text and that of March is the use of the same Biblical text. Return to text
18 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as V2 (verbatim). In Rea and Dr. Veltman's study March's sentence marked with B ends with "... before the two travelers reach their home." Return to text
19 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase). Return to text
20 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase). Return to text
21 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase). Return to text
22 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as V2 (verbatim). Return to text
23 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase). Return to text
24 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase). Return to text
25 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase). Return to text
26 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase). Are we really supposed to believe that Ellen G. White copied the words "evening meal," "the simple," and "bread" from March? Return to text
27 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Hanna, 802 (opposite DA, 801)). There is no verbal similarity between DA and the alleged source. Return to text
28 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as V2 (verbatim). Return to text
29 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase); an earlier statement by Ellen G. White that is virtually the same is rated as V2 (verbatim). Return to text
30 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase). Return to text
31 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase). Return to text
32 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase). There is no verbal similarity with the alleged source. Return to text
March, page 419; continuing from above.
And now that he breathes forth the blessing the recognize the tone, the manner, the look. It is he who hung upon the cross! It is he whose body was laid in the tomb! He lives, and they have been walking with him all the way! Now they are ready to cast themselves in wonder and in worship at His feet. But the object of his appearance and of his long reasoning with them by the way is gained, and he vanishes out of their sight.
Hanna, page 802, skipping over 11 lines of text from where we were before.
This is the home, it has been thought, of one of the two disciples, and he whose home it is prepares to do the duty of the host. That duty is taken out of his hands. The mysterious stranger takes the bread; he blesses, he breaks, he gives. Who but One could bless and break and give in such a way as this?
March, page 419; picking up from where we were before.
And now, that this great joy has filled their hearts, their weariness and their discouragement are all gone. They have no thought of hunger or of rest. They must hurry back to tell the tidings to their brethren in the city. In a moment they are out again upon the stony path, with their faces toward Jerusalem. It is now night, and the moon which was full four days ago, has not yet risen. But it is all light in the glad hearts of the disciples who have seen their risen Lord. The sad looks and sorrowful words with which they went out in the bright afternoon are all exchanged for exultations of joy, now that they are coming back in the dark night. The world is all new to them, and the one dread horror of death is all gone, if Christ be risen from the dead. They cannot wait for the morning to carry such joyful tidings to the sorrowing band of their brethren.
They hurry along the wild mountain road, plunging into dark glens, climbing steep ridges, bending around shadowy hills, sometimes stepping from stone to stone, feeling the way in the dark with the pilgrim's staff, and sometimes slipping upon the smooth face of the steep ledges, and then losing track in crossing the dry bed of a torrent. I have myself more than once travelled as wild and rugged a mountain-path alone by night, and I know that Cleopas and his companion must have had light hearts to have started out upon that night-journey to Jerusalem, without waiting for the moon to rise or the morning to dawn.
But they carried in their hearts tidings of the greatest victory ever gained in this world--the victory over death, the unbarring of the gates of the grave for the human race. And well they might go, running when they could, climbing and descending with cautious step when they must, but rejoicing all the way. For they were bearers of the best tidings that human lips ever told. They could testify to a fact upon which all the hopes of man for eternity must depend.
Hanna, page 803, skipping over 25 lines of text from where we were before.
Their hearts were now full of the desire to tell to the brethren they had left in the city all that had happened.
They rise to cast themselves at His feet and worship Him, but He has vanished out of their sight.33 They look at the place which had been occupied by One whose body had lately lain in the grave, and say to each other, "Did not our heart burn within us, while He talked with us by the way, and while He opened to us the Scriptures?"
But with this great news to communicate they cannot sit and talk. Their weariness and hunger are gone.34 They leave their meal untasted, and full of joy immediately set out again on the same path by which they came, hurrying to tell the tidings to the disciples in the city.35 In some parts the road is not safe, but they climb over the steep places, slipping on the smooth rocks.36 They do not see, they do not know, that they have the protection of Him who has traveled the road with them. With their pilgrim staff in hand, they press on, desiring to go faster than they dare.37 They lose their track, but find it again.38 Sometimes running, sometimes stumbling, they press forward, their unseen Companion close beside them all the way.39
The night is dark, but the Sun of Righteousness is shining upon them.40 Their hearts leap for joy.41 They seem to be in a new world.42 Christ is a living Saviour.43 They no longer mourn over Him as dead. Christ is risen--over and over again they repeat it. This is the message they are carrying to the sorrowing ones.44 They must tell them the wonderful story of the walk to Emmaus.45 They must tell who joined them by the way. They carry the greatest message ever given to the world, a message of glad tidings upon which the hopes of the human family for time and for eternity depend.46
33 In Dr. Veltman's study the first half of this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase) and the rest rated as B1 (source Bible). Return to text
34 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase). Return to text
35 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase). Return to text
36 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase). Return to text
37 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase). Return to text
38 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as I2 (partial independence). Return to text
39 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase). Return to text
40 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as I2 (partial independence). Return to text
41 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase). Return to text
42 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase). Return to text
43 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase). Return to text
44 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase). Return to text
45 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, 803). Return to text
46 In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase). Return to text
Late in the afternoon, page 795
two of the, page 795
no prominent place, page 795
They had heard, page 795
pursued their evening walk, page 795
but they were so, page 795
earnestness, tenderness, and sympathy,, page 796
the great feast, page 800
the sun had gone down, page 800
they would not have, page 800
He interests Himself in, page 800
the humblest home, page 800
ask Him to abide with them, He passes on, page 800
He puts forth His hands to bless, page 800
the print of, page 800
to cast themselves, page 801
at His feet, page 801
Their weariness and, page 801
to tell the tidings to, page 801
in the city., page 801
to the sorrowing, page 801
the hopes of, page 801
Of the 116 sentences in this chapter Veltman found three that were verbatim quotes from any source (however, in the above we have four):
During the journey the sun had gone down, and before the travelers reached their place of rest, the laborers in the fields had left their work., page 800.
Christ never forces His company upon anyone., page 800.
Now He puts forth His hands to bless the food., page 800.
The disciples start back in astonishment., page 800.
of the three classes of paraphrases 41 sentences were found (or 35.34%), 16 came from the Bible (9 as quotes), and the rest were either partially (17 sentences) or completely independent (39 sentences)--this means that according to Dr. Veltman's study of this chapter 48.28% is considered independent in one way or another.