We analyze. You decide!
"No lie can live forever." Thomas Carlyle

An Analysis of the Literary Dependency
of The Desire of Ages, Chapter 75

      Some critics have accused Ellen White of plagiarizing the contents of The Desire of Ages from the writings of various authors. But, did she really? Below is an analysis of one of the alleged examples.

      One problem with those who are "victims" of parallelomania is that they confuse the mere presence of a few words in both texts as being evidence of plagiarism. They completely overlook the context and meaning of the words that are similar, an even more importantly, the far greater number of words that are dissimilar. Typically, they do not understand that in order to properly assess if something is plagiarized or not one must compare and contrast and not just look for parallels.

      It has been noted by students of plagiarism that one can make a work look plagiarized, when in fact, it is not by carefully using ellipses and discarding all the material that is different. What we want to do is determine whether the critics did a fair analysis, or whether their comparisons actually distorted reality. Accordingly, we have coded the text so that you, the reader, can easily come to your own conclusion. Paragraphs that are not coded means that neither the critics, nor Dr. Veltman and his team of researchers, could not, or did not, find anything worthy of note.

      This example can be found in Dr. Veltman's study, pages 543-669, with the evidence presented on pages 553-607 (the numbered sentences are from the Veltman study. Note that there is a numbering error in Hanna, page 656, there is no sentence #72.). See also Rea, page 317.

      I still need to confirm Bennett quotes and context; the quotes have been simply copied over from Dr. Veltman's study.

Color Key

Material in Ellen G. White that is an exact, word-for-word match to her alleged source.

Material in Ellen G. White that is similar to her alleged source.

Words that are either an exact, or similar, match of the source, but are also an exact, or similar, match to Biblical material.

Material that is represented in either Rea's book or Dr. Veltman's study by an ellipsis.

Material dropped from the beginning or end of the paragraph of the alleged source in Rea's book.

Material clipped from the beginning or end of a sentence in Rea's book, without giving the reader any indication of such. (Either a capital letter or a period appears where it should not, hiding the fact that material is missing.)

Material that was mis-capitalized or mis-abbreviated in Rea.

      Typical author's caveat: all errors are, of course, mine. If you find any errors please let me know and I'll fix them.

Alleged Source(s) Desire of Ages. (1898)
Frederic Farrar, The Life of Christ, page 456; courtesy of Ulrike Unruh.

When the tribune, who commanded the detachment of Roman soldiers, had ordered Jesus to be bound, they led Him away without an attempt at opposition. Midnight was already passed as they hurried Him, from the moonlit shadows of green Gethsemane, through the hushed streets of the sleeping city, to the palace of the High Priest. It seems to have been jointly occupied by the prime movers in this black iniquity, Annas and his son-in-law, Joseph Caiaphas. They led Him to Annas first.

Bennett, Lectures on the History of Jesus Christ, page 361

Behold the Son of God, with his hands tied behind him, and his feet fettered, so that he moved slowly, and with pain, while a guard of soldiers, and a posse of constables, with staves and clubs, surround him. Their torches blaze around, and the midnight rabble that attends such seizures, follow, hooting and insulting his sacred majesty, his divine dignity, and unrivalled worth.

Geikie, Life and Words of Christ, page 483

      On reaching Jerusalem, Jesus was first led to the mansion of Hannas, the head of the reigning priestly family, either in deference to his recognised influence, or because, as the if not legal, dignitary. He could see Jesus, and hear His defence, and advise his son-in-law how to act. His "snake-like" craft might help the less acute Caiaphas.

Daniel March, Walks and Homes of Jesus, page 204.

      It is now past midnight, and from this time forward the course of events in this awful history runs swiftly on to the closing scene on the cross. First walking painfully with bound hands amid the rude and merciless mob, Jesus is hurried down and up the steep path, through the city gate to the house of Annas. Not for a formal trial did they bring Him there, but only that the father-in-law of the high priest, the man whose counsel was of the highest authority in the nation, might have the dreadful satisfaction of seeing Jesus of Nazareth a prisoner.

Alfred Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. Book V, page 547.  This "corresponds" with the last sentence of the 2nd paragraph of EGW.

He was as resolutely bent on His Death as his son-in-law, though with his characteristic cunning and coolness, not in the hasty, bluff manner of Caiaphas.

William Hanna, The Life of Christ. (1863), page 663.

[10]It was in this hall, and before Annas, that Jesus was subjected to that preliminary informal examination recorded in the eighteenth chapter of the gospel of St. John, ver. 19-24. [11]He was to be formally tried, with show at least of law, before the Sanhedrin, the highest of the Jewish courts; but this could not be done at once. ...

Page 664
But they could not act without their colleagues, nor pronounce any sentence which they might call upon the Roman governor at once to ratify and execute.

Andrews, The Life of Our Lord ..., page 511

While the Sanhedrin had power to try those charged with capital offenses, it had no power to execute the sentence of death. "It is only in cases in which such sentence of death was pronounced, that the judgement required to be ratified by the authority of the procurator." (Schuerer).

Before Annas and the Court of Caiaphas

[This chapter is based on Matt. 26:57-75; 27:1; Mark 14:53-72; 15:1; Luke 22:54-71; John 18:13-27.]

      Over the brook Kedron, past gardens and olive groves, and through the hushed streets of the sleeping city, they hurried Jesus.1 It was past midnight, and the cries of the hooting mob that followed Him broke sharply upon the still air.2 The Saviour was bound and closely guarded, and He moved painfully.3 But in eager haste His captors made their way with Him to the palace of Annas, the ex-high priest.4

      Annas was the head of the officiating priestly family, and in deference to his age he was recognized by the people as high priest.5 His counsel was sought and carried out as the voice of God.6 He must first see Jesus a captive to priestly power.7 He must be present at the examination of the prisoner, for fear that the less-experienced Caiaphas might fail of securing the object for which they were working.8 His artifice, cunning, and subtlety must be used on this occasion; for, at all events, Christ's condemnation must be secured.9

      Christ was to be tried formally before the Sanhedrin; but before Annas He was subjected to a preliminary trial.10 Under the Roman rule the Sanhedrin could not execute the sentence of death.11 They could only examine a prisoner, and pass judgment, to be ratified by the Roman authorities.12 It was therefore necessary to bring against Christ charges

NOTES

  1  In Dr. Veltman's study this is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase).    Return to text

  2  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase; note that March, page 204 has the words "past midnight" as does EGW.    Return to text

  3  In Dr. Veltman's study this is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase).    Return to text

  4  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase). Note that we have picked up more material by including a previous sentence.    Return to text

  5  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Geikie, page 483).    Return to text

  6  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see March, 204).    Return to text

  7  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see March, 204).    Return to text

  8  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P3 (loose paraphrase--Edersheim's page 547).    Return to text

  9  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--Edersheim's page 547).    Return to text

  10  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as V2 (verbatim--see Hanna, page 663).    Return to text

  11  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Andrews, 511). Note the little verbal similarity with Hanna, page 664.    Return to text

  12  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Andrews, page 511). Note the little verbal similarity with the underlined material in Hanna, page 664. Is it possible that Ellen G. White had read both sources and "merged" them?    Return to text

William Hanna, The Life of Christ. (1863), page 664.

[16]While the messengers, however, are despatched to summon them, and the members of the Sanhedrim are gathering, Annas may prepare the way by sounding Christ, in a far-off, unofficial, conversational manner, and may perhaps extract from his replies some good material upon which the court may afterward proceed. [17]Calling Jesus before him, he puts to him some questions about his disciples and his doctrine;A questions fair enough, and proper enough as to their outward form, yet captious and inquisitorial, intended to entangle, and pointing not obscurely to the main charges to be afterwards brought against him, of being a disturber of the public peace, and a teacher of blasphemous doctrines. [18]First, then, about his disciples: Anna would like to know what this gathering of men around him meant; this forming them into a distinct society. [19]By what bond or pledge to one another were the members of this new society united; what secret instructions had they got; what hidden objects had they in view? ... [23]Penetrating at once his design, knowing thoroughly what his real meaning and purposes were, our Lord utterly and indignantly denies the charge that was attempted thus to be fastened on him. [24]Neither as to his disciples, nor as to his doctrine--neither as to instructions given to his followers, nor as to the bonds of their union and fellowship with one another, had there been anything of the concealed or the sinister; not one doctrine for the people without, and another for the initiated within; no meetings under cloud of night in hidden places for doubtful or dangerous objects.

Deems, Who Was Jesus, page 641

It will be perceived that his persecutors desired to obtain evidence against him on two counts,--first blasphemy; secondly, sedition: on the first they could condemn him to death as lords spiritual, and on the second the Roman power could execute him.

Frederic Farrar, The Life of Christ. Page 460

      Such then were the feelings of bitter contempt and hatred with which the ex-high Priest assumed the initiative in interrogating Jesus. The fact that he dared not avow them--nay, was forced to keep them wholly out of sight--would only add to the intensity of his bitterness. Even his method of procedure seems to have been as wholly illegal as was his assumption, in such a place and at such an hour, of any legal function whatever. Anxious, at all hazards, to trump up some available charge of secret sedition, or of unorthodox teaching, he questioned Jesus of His disciples and of His doctrine.B The answer, for all its calmness, involved a deep reproof. "I have spoken openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue and in the Temple, where all the Jews come together, and in secret I said nothing. Why askest thou me? Ask those who have heard me what I said to them. Lo! these"--pointing, perhaps, to the by-standers-- "know what I said to them." [59a]The emphatic repetition of the "I" and its unusually significant position at the end of the sentence, show that a contrast was intended; as though He had said, [59b]"This midnight, this sedition, this secrecy, this indecent mockery of justice, are yours, not mine, There has never been anything esoteric in my doctrine; never anything to conceal in my actions; no hole-and-corner plots among my followers. But thou? and thine?"

Farrar, page 615; as per Dr. Veltman's study

But He would not repeat it, in spite of their insistence, because He knew that it was open to their wilful misinterpretation, and because they were evidently acting in flagrant violation of their own express rules and traditions, which demanded that every arraigned criminal should be regarded and treated as innocent until his guilt was actually proved.

William Hanna, The Life of Christ. (1863), page 664.

      This question tells the judge how naked and bare that hypocriti-

Page 665
cal heart of his lies to the inspection of the prisoner: "Why askest thou me?" 'Put that question Annas, to thy heart, and let it answer thee, if it be not so deceitful as to hide its secrets from thine own eyes. "Why askest thou me?" [29]Art thou really so ignorant as thou pretendest to be; thou, who hast had my spies about me for well-nigh three years, tracking my footsteps, watching my actions, reporting my words?" [30]"Why askest thou me?" [34]It seems to have silenced the high priest. ...

Page 699

that would be regarded as criminal by the Romans. An accusation must also be found which would condemn Him in the eyes of the Jews. Not a few among the priests and rulers had been convicted by Christ's teaching, and only fear of excommunication prevented them from confessing Him. The priests well remembered the question of Nicodemus, "Doth our law judge any man, before it hear him, and know what he doeth?" John 7:51. This question had for the time broken up the council, and thwarted their plans. Joseph of Arimathaea and Nicodemus were not now to be summoned, but there were others who might dare to speak in favor of justice. The trial must be so conducted as to unite the members of the Sanhedrin against Christ. There were two charges which the priests desired to maintain.13 If Jesus could be proved a blasphemer, He would be condemned by the Jews.14 If convicted of sedition, it would secure His condemnation by the Romans.15 The second charge Annas tried first to establish. He questioned Jesus concerning His disciples and His doctrines,NN hoping the prisoner would say something that would give him material upon which to work.16 He thought to draw out some statement to prove that He was seeking to establish a secret society, with the purpose of setting up a new kingdom.17 Then the priests could deliver Him to the Romans as a disturber of the peace and a creator of insurrection.18

      Christ read the priest's purpose as an open book.19 As if reading the inmost soul of His questioner, He denied that there was between Him and His followers any secret bond of union, or that He gathered them secretly and in the darkness to conceal His designs.20 He had no secrets in regard to His purposes or doctrines.21 "I spake openly to the world," He answered; "I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing."

      The Saviour contrasted His own manner of work with the methods of His accusers.22 For months they had hunted Him, striving to entrap Him and bring Him before a secret tribunal, where they might obtain by perjury what it was impossible to gain by fair means. Now they were carrying out their purpose. The midnight seizure by a mob, the mockery and abuse before He was condemned, or even accused, was their manner of work, not His.23 Their action was in violation of the law.24 Their own rules declared that every man should be treated as innocent until proved guilty.25 By their own rules the priests stood condemned.

      Turning upon His questioner, Jesus said, "Why askest thou Me?" Had not the priests and rulers sent spies to watch His movements, and report His every word?26 Had not these been present at every gathering

NOTES

  13  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 664, sentence 17b.).    Return to text

  14  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Deems, page 641).    Return to text

  NN  Did EGW "use" Hanna (marked with A) or Farrar (marked with B)?  Or, did she get it from John 18:19 which says "The high priest then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his doctrine."?  Which did you choose and why?    Return to text

  16  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 664, sentence 16, 17a.).    Return to text

  17  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Hanna, page 664, sentence 18-9.).    Return to text

  18  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Hanna, page 664, sentence 17; however, Veltman uses sentence #20 of which only the word "insurrectionary" is similar to what Ellen G. White wrote.).    Return to text

  19  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Hanna, page 664, sentence 23.).    Return to text

  20  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 664, sentence 23-4.).    Return to text

  21  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 664, sentence 24.).    Return to text

  22  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Farrar sentence 59a.).    Return to text

  23  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Farrar sentence 59b.).    Return to text

  24  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Farrar, sentence 80.).    Return to text

  25  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as V2 (verbatim--see Farrar, sentence 80.).    Return to text

  26  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 665, sentence 29.).    Return to text

William Hanna, The Life of Christ. (1863), page 665.

      [37]But there was one of his officers who could not so restrain himself, who could not bear to see his master thus, as he thought, insulted, and who, in the heat of his indignation, struck Christ with the palm of his hand--some forward official, who thought in this way to earn his master's favor, but who only earned for himself the unenviable notoriety of having been the first to begin those acts of inhuman violence with which the trial and condemnation of Jesus were so largely and disgracefully interspersed.

Harris, The Great Teacher, page 248; clipped in Rea's presentation, additional exact material noted in Dr. Veltman's study, the rest of the sentence after "to submit" on page 249 was ellipsed in Dr. Veltman's study

      Besides his purity, we might specify, not merely his superiority to the age in which he lived, but the absolute contrariety of his character to all existing and surrounding influences; the universality of his plans, which distinguished and left him alone in the earth; the reconciliation and union in his character opposite excellences, and which formed its perfection and finish. But that which sheds a prevailing hue over the whole character of Christ, and forms its principal feature, is, unquestionably, benevolence. It is that transcendental attribute which ran through all the rest, adapting, baptizing, and turning the whole into grace. It was by no means an indifferent act to him: "he suffered, being tempted,"--suffered in proportion to the perfection of his holiness, and the depth of his aversion to sin, but through his residence in an atmosphere of sin was revolting to his purity, though the presence of depravity made his continuance here a perpetual sacrifice, his love induced him

Page 249
to submit--induced him so intimately to associate with the ungodly, that one of his characteristic names became "the friend of publicans and sinners."

Bennett, page 364

Christ could, though his hands were bound, have struck the man to death; as he, with a word or a look, lately brought a host to the dust.

Page 700

of the people, and carried to the priests information of all His sayings and doings? "Ask them which heard Me, what I have said unto them," replied Jesus; "behold, they know what I said."

      Annas was silenced by the decision of the answer.27 Fearing that Christ would say something regarding his course of action that he would prefer to keep covered up, he said nothing more to Him at this time. One of his officers, filled with wrath as he saw Annas silenced, struck Jesus on the face, saying, "Answerest Thou the high priest so?"28

      Christ calmly replied, "If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil: but if well, why smitest thou Me?" He spoke no burning words of retaliation. His calm answer came from a heart sinless, patient, and gentle, that would not be provoked.

      Christ suffered keenly under abuse and insult. At the hands of the beings whom He had created, and for whom He was making an infinite sacrifice, He received every indignity. And He suffered in proportion to the perfection of the perfection of His holiness and His hatred of sin.29 His trial by men who acted as fiends was to Him a perpetual sacrifice.30 To be surrounded by human beings under the control of Satan was revolting to Him.31 And He knew that in a moment, by the flashing forth of His divine power, He could lay His cruel tormentors in the dust.32 This made the trial the harder to bear.

      The Jews were looking for a Messiah to be revealed in outward show. They expected Him, by one flash of overmastering will, to change the current of men's thoughts, and force from them an acknowledgment of His supremacy. Thus, they believed, He was to secure His own exaltation, and gratify their ambitious hopes. Thus when Christ was treated with contempt, there came to Him a strong temptation to manifest His divine character. By a word, by a look, He could compel His persecutors to confess that He was Lord above kings and rulers, priests and temple. But it was His difficult task to keep to the position He had chosen as one with humanity.

      The angels of heaven witnessed every movement made against their loved Commander. They longed to deliver Christ. Under God the angels are all-powerful. On one occasion, in obedience to the command of Christ, they slew of the Assyrian army in one night one hundred and eighty-five thousand men. How easily could the angels, beholding the shameful scene of the trial of Christ, have testified their indignation by consuming the adversaries of God! But they were not commanded to do this. He who could have doomed His enemies to death bore with

NOTES

  27  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 665, sentence 29 (see previous table).    Return to text

  28  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Hanna, page 665, sentence 37.).    Return to text

  29  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as V2 (verbatim--see Harris, page 248-9).    Return to text

  30  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as I2 (partial independence--see Harris, page 248-9).    Return to text

  31  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Harris, page 248-9).    Return to text

  32  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Bennett, 364 (NEED TO ADD!): "Christ could, though his hands were bound, have struck the man to death; as he, with a word or a look, lately brought a host to the dust.").    Return to text

Hanna, page 666

      [46]But now at last the whole council has assembled, Caiaphas has taken his seat as president, and they go more formally to work. Their object is to convict him of some crime which shall warrant their pronouncing upon him the severest sentence of the law. [48]That the appearance of justice may be preserved, they must have witnesses; these witnesses must testify to some speech or act of Christ which would involve him in that doom; and as to any specific charge, two of these witnesses must agree before they can condemn.

Hanna, page 663, sentence 11--see above
Frederic Farrar, The Life of Christ. page 461

      [69]Caiaphas, like his father-in-law, was a Sadducee--equally astute and unscrupulous with Annas, but endowed with less force of character and will. In his house took place the second private and irregular stage of the trail. (Matt. xxvi. 59-68; Mark xiv. 55-65) There--for though the poor Apostles could not watch for one hour in the sympathetic prayer, these nefarious plotters could watch all night in their deadly malice--a few of the most desperate enemies of Jesus among the Priests and Sadducees were met. To form a session of the Sanhedrin there must at least have been twenty-three members present. And we may perhaps be allowed to conjecture that this particular body before which Christ was now convened was mainly composed of Priests. There were in fact three Sanhedrins, or as we should rather call them, committees of the Sanhedrin, which ordinarily met at different places in the Lishcat Haggazzith, or paved hall; in the Beth Mirach, or Chamber by the Partition of the Temple; and near the Gate of the Temple. Such being the case, it is no unreasonable supposition that these committees were composed of different elements and that one of them may have been mainly sacerdotal in its constitution. If so, it would have been the most likely of them all, at the present crises, to embrace the most violent measures against One whose teaching now seemed to endanger the very existence of priestly rule.

Daniel March, Walks and Homes of Jesus, page 204.

And it seems a relief from something worse when the armed band appears, and He goes forth to give Himself up. His troubled countenance at once assumes so much of its serene and godlike majesty, that the hardened soldiers are struck to the ground with awe before Him. But the delay is only momentary. He offers Himself again, and they bind Him and lead Him away.

      It is now past midnight, and from this time forward the course of events in this awful history runs swiftly on to the closing scene on the cross. First walking painfully with bound hands amid the rude and merciless mob, Jesus is hurried down and up the steep path, through the city gate to the house of Annas. Not only for a formal trial did they bring Him there, but only that the old father-in-law of the high priest, the man whose counsel was the highest authority in the nation, might have the satisfaction of seeing Jesus of Nazareth a prisoner. Then out again into the dark, narrow streets, finding their way by the uncertain light of lanterns and torches, they hurry their unresisting victim with insults and mockery to the palace of Caiaphas.

Ingraham, page 359

A score of the elders and chief priests were standing about him, their dark, eager faces earnestly watching the entrance, to get a look at the approaching Prophet. ... The Roman soldiers, with clanging steel, marched in, and arrayed themselves on either side of the High Priest's throne, leaving Jesus standing alone before its footstool.

Page 703

their cruelty. His love for His Father, and His pledge, made from the foundation of the world, to become the Sin Bearer, led Him to endure uncomplainingly the coarse treatment of those He came to save. It was a part of His mission to bear, in His humanity, all the taunts and abuse that men could heap upon Him. The only hope of humanity was in this submission of Christ to all that He could endure from the hands and hearts of men.

      Christ had said nothing that could give His accusers an advantage; yet He was bound, to signify that He was condemned. There must, however, be a pretense of justice.33 It was necessary that there should be the form of a legal trial.34 This the authorities were determined to hasten. They knew the regard in which Jesus was held by the people, and feared that if the arrest were noised abroad, a rescue would be attempted. Again, if the trial and execution were not brought about at once, there would be a week's delay on account of the celebration of the Passover. This might defeat their plans. In securing the condemnation of Jesus they depended largely upon the clamor of the mob, many of them the rabble of Jerusalem. Should there be a week's delay, the excitement would abate, and a reaction would be likely to set in. The better part of the people would be aroused in Christ's favor; many would come forward with testimony in His vindication, bringing to light the mighty works He had done. This would excite popular indignation against the Sanhedrin. Their proceedings would be condemned, and Jesus would be set free, to receive new homage from the multitudes. The priests and rulers therefore determined that before their purpose could become known, Jesus should be delivered into the hands of the Romans.

      But first of all, an accusation was to be found. They had gained nothing as yet. Annas ordered Jesus to be taken to Caiaphas. Caiaphas belonged to the Sadducees, some of whom were now the most desperate enemies of Jesus.35 He himself, though wanting in force of character, was fully as severe, heartless, and unscrupulous as was Annas.36 He would leave no means untried to destroy Jesus. It was now early morning, and very dark; by the light of torches and lanterns the armed band with their prisoner proceeded to the high priest's palace.37 Here, while the members of the Sanhedrin were coming together, Annas and Caiaphas again questioned Jesus, but without success.

      When the council had assembled in the judgment hall, Caiaphas took his seat as presiding officer.38 On either side were the judges, and those specially interested in the trial.39 The Roman soldiers were stationed on

NOTES

  33  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 666, sentence 48).    Return to text

  34  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Hanna, page 663, sentence 11 (see first table).    Return to text

  35  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Farrar, page 461).    Return to text

  36  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Farrar, page 461).    Return to text

  37  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see March, page 204).    Return to text

  38  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 666, sentence 46 (see top of this table)).    Return to text

  39  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Ingraham, page 359).    Return to text

Ingraham, page 360

He alone, of all that countless host, He alone was calm--serene--fearless! Caiaphas gazed upon Him, as He stood before his footstool, betraying in his glance admiration mingled with resentment.

Ingraham, page 361

Jesus remained unmoved. His bearing was marked by a certain divine dignity, while an expression of holy resignation sat upon his features. He looked like Peace, incarnate in the form of man! A soft influence seemed to flow from his presence, producing a universal but momentary emotion of sympathy.

Ingraham, page 359

Among the most eager of all these was Caiaphas himself, who regarded the eloquent Nazarene as his rival in the eyes of the whole people, and had, therefore, long thirsted for his destruction.

Page 704

the platform below the throne.40 At the foot of the throne stood Jesus.41 Upon Him the gaze of the whole multitude was fixed. The excitement was intense. Of all the throng He alone was calm and serene.42 The very atmosphere surrounding Him seemed pervaded by a holy influence.43

      Caiaphas had regarded Jesus as his rival.44 The eagerness of the people to hear the Saviour, and their apparent readiness to accept His teachings, had aroused the bitter jealousy of the high priest. But as Caiaphas now looked upon the prisoner, he was struck with admiration for His noble and dignified bearing. A conviction came over him that this Man was akin to God. The next instant he scornfully banished the thought. Immediately

NOTES

  40  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Ingraham, page 359, (see previous example).    Return to text

  41  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Ingraham, page 359, (see previous example).    Return to text

  42  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as V2 (verbatim--see Ingraham, page 360).    Return to text

  43  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Ingraham, page 361).    Return to text

  44  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Ingraham, page 359).    Return to text

Ingraham, page 360

"'So, then,' he spoke, with haughty irony, 'thou art Jesus, the far-famed Galilean Prophet! Men say thou canst raise the dead! We would fain behold a miracle.

Ingraham, page 361

Jesus remained unmoved.

Farrar, page 462

      Instead of trying, as Hanan had done, to overawe and entangle Jesus with insidious questions, and so to involve Him in a charge of secret apostasy, they now tried to brand Him with the crime of public error. [79]In point of fact their own bitter divisions and controversies made the task of convicting Him a very difficult one. . . . [82]But Jesus, infinitely nobler than His own noblest Apostle, would not foment these latent animosities, or evoke for His own deliverance a contest of these slumbering prejudices. He did not disturb the temporary compromise which united them in a common hatred against Himself. Since, therefore, they had nothing else to go upon the Chief Priests and the entire Sanhedrin “sought false witness” such is the terribly simple expression of the Evangelists--”sought false witness against Jesus to put Him to death.”

Hanna, page 666, picking up where we left off before

[49]They could have got plenty of witnesses to testify as to Christ's having within the last few days openly denounced themselves, the members of the Sanhedrim, as fools and blind, hypocrites, a very generation of vipers; but to have convicted Christ upon that count or charge would have given to their proceedings against him the aspect of personal revenge.

Farrar, page 470

There were many old accusations

Page 471
against Him on which they could not rely. [71]His violations of the Sabbath, as they called them, were all connected with miracles, and brought them, therefore, upon dangerous ground. His rejection of oral tradition involved a question on which Sadducees and Pharisees were at deadly feud.

Farrar, 462

. . . no less false than the utterly absurd and unchronological assertion of the tract Sanhedrin, that Jesus had been excommunicated by Joshua Ben Perachiah, and that though for forty days a herald had proclaimed that he had brought magic from Egypt and seduced the people, no single witness came forward in His favor. [88]Settling aside these absurd inventions, we learn from the Gospels that though the agents of these priests were eager to lie, yet their testimony was so false, so shadowy,

Page 463
so self-contradictory, that it all melted to nothing, and even those unjust and bitter judges could not with any decency accept it. But at last two came forward whose false witness looked more promising.

Page 705

his voice was heard in sneering, haughty tones demanding that Jesus work one of His mighty miracles before them.45 But his words fell upon the Saviour's ears as though He heard them not.46 The people compared the excited and malignant deportment of Annas and Caiaphas with the calm, majestic bearing of Jesus. Even in the minds of that hardened multitude arose the question, Is this man of godlike presence to be condemned as a criminal?

      Caiaphas, perceiving the influence that was obtaining, hastened the trial. The enemies of Jesus were in great perplexity. They were bent on securing His condemnation, but how to accomplish this they knew not. The members of the council were divided between the Pharisees and the Sadducees. There was bitter animosity and controversy between them; certain disputed points they dared not approach for fear of a quarrel.47 With a few words Jesus could have excited their prejudices against each other, and thus have averted their wrath from Himself.48 Caiaphas knew this, and he wished to avoid stirring up a contention. There were plenty of witnesses to prove that Christ had denounced the priests and scribes, that He had called them hypocrites and murderers; but this testimony it was not expedient to bring forward.49 The Sadducees in their sharp contentions with the Pharisees had used to them similar language. And such testimony would have no weight with the Romans, who were themselves disgusted with the pretensions of the Pharisees. There was abundant evidence that Jesus had disregarded the traditions of the Jews, and had spoken irreverently of many of their ordinances; but in regard to tradition the Pharisees and Sadducees were at swords' points; and this evidence also would have no weight with the Romans. Christ's enemies dared not accuse Him of Sabbathbreaking, lest an examination should reveal the character of His work.50 If His miracles of healing were brought to light, the very object of the priests would be defeated.

      False witnesses had been bribed to accuse Jesus of inciting rebellion and seeking to establish a separate government. But their testimony proved to be vague and contradictory.51 Under examination they falsified their own statements.

      Early in His ministry Christ had said, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up." In the figurative language of prophecy, He had thus foretold His own death and resurrection. "He spake of the temple of His body." John 2:19, 21. These words the Jews had understood in a literal sense, as referring to the temple at Jerusalem. Of all that Christ had said, the priests could find nothing to use against Him

NOTES

  45  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Ingraham, page 360).    Return to text

  46  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Ingraham, page 361).    Return to text

  47  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Farrar, page 462, sentence 79.).    Return to text

  48  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Farrar, page 462, sentence 82.).    Return to text

  49  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Hanna, page 666, sentence 49.).    Return to text

  50  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Farrar, page 471, sentence 71.).    Return to text

  51  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Farrar, page 462-3, sentence 88.).    Return to text

Hall, page 468

Had those words been spoken, as it was suggested, they contained no crime--had he been, [such] as they supposed him, a mere man, the speech had carried a semblance of ostentation, no semblance of blasphemy.

Farrar, page 463

It was just one of those perjuries which was all the more perjured because it bore some distant semblance to the truth; and by just giving a different nuance to His actual words they had, with the ingenuity of slander, reversed their meaning, and hoped to found upon them a charge of constructive blasphemy. [95]But even this semblable perjury utterly broke down, and Jesus listened in silence while His disunited enemies hopelessly confuted each other’s testimony. Guilt often breaks into excuses where perfect innocence is dumb.

Kitto, page 407

Jesus meanwhile had not condescended to put himself upon his defence.

Farrar, page 463

[96]Guilt often breaks into excuses where perfect innocence is dumb. [97]He simply suffered His false accusers and their false listeners to entangle themselves in the hideous coil of their own malignant lies, and the silence of the innocent Jesus atoned for the excuse of the guilty Adam.

      [98]But that majestic silence troubled, thwarted, confounded, maddened them. . . . [101]And as every poisoned arrow of their carefully provided perjuries fell harmless at His feet, as though blunted on the diamond shield of His white innocence, they began to fear lest, after all, their thirst for His blood would go unslaked, and their whole plot fail.

Kitto, page 408

On this Caiaphas became desperate, and adopted a resource which our own rules of evidence would declare most infamous, and which was also wholly adverse to the first principles of Mosaic jurisprudence and the like of which occurs in no circumstance of Hebrew history. It was that of putting the prisoner upon his oath to answer questions, framed for his own crimination.

Farrar, page 463

Were they thus to be conquered by the feebleness of their own weapons, without His stirring a finger or uttering a word? Was this Prophet of Nazareth to prevail against them, merely for lack of a few consistent lies? Was His life charmed even against calumny confirmed by oaths? It was intolerable.

      Then Caiaphas was overcome with a paroxysm of fear and anger. [107]Starting up from his judgment-seat and striding into the midst--with what a voice, with what an attitude we may well imagine! . . .

Page 464

      Strange question to a bound, defenceless, condemned criminal; and strange question from such a questioner--a High Priest of His people! Strange question from the judge who was hounding on his false witnesses against the prisoner! [113]Yet so adjured, and to such a question, Jesus could not be silent; on such a point the could not leave Himself open to misinterpretation.

Hall, page 575; DOUBLE CHECK THE WORD ORDER

"There is a time to speak, and a time to keep silence--Christ, the wisdom of God, hath given us an example of both."

Krummacher, page 182

He knows that his answer will cause his death, but he dares no longer to refrain.

Page 706

save this. By misstating these words they hoped to gain an advantage. The Romans had engaged in rebuilding and embellishing the temple, and they took great pride in it; any contempt shown to it would be sure to excite their indignation. Here Romans and Jews, Pharisees and Sadducees, could meet; for all held the temple in great veneration. On this point two witnesses were found whose testimony was not so contradictory as that of the others had been. One of them, who had been bribed to accuse Jesus, declared, "This fellow said, I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days." Thus Christ's words were misstated. If they had been reported exactly as He spoke them, they would not have secured His condemnation even by the Sanhedrin. Had Jesus been a mere man, as the Jews claimed, His declaration would only have indicated an unreasonable, boastful spirit, but could not have been construed into blasphemy.52 Even as misrepresented by the false witnesses, His words contained nothing which would be regarded by the Romans as a crime worthy of death.

      Patiently Jesus listened to the conflicting testimonies.53 No word did He utter in self-defense.54 At last His accusers were entangled, confused, and maddened.55 The trial was making no headway; it seemed that their plottings were to fail.56 Caiaphas was desperate.57 One last resort remained; Christ must be forced to condemn Himself.58 The high priest started from the judgment seat, his face contorted with passion, his voice and demeanor plainly indicating that were it in his power he would strike down the prisoner before him.59 "Answerest Thou nothing?" he exclaimed; "what is it which these witness against Thee?"

      Jesus held His peace. "He was oppressed, and He was afflicted, yet He opened not His mouth: He is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so He openeth not His mouth." Isaiah 53:7.

      At last, Caiaphas, raising his right hand toward heaven, addressed Jesus in the form of a solemn oath: "I adjure Thee by the living God, that Thou tell us whether Thou be the Christ, the Son of God."

      To this appeal Christ could not remain silent.60 There was a time to be silent, and a time to speak.61 He had not spoken until directly questioned. He knew that to answer now would make His death certain.62 But the appeal was made by the highest acknowledged authority of the nation, and in the name of the Most High. Christ would not fail to show proper respect for the law. More than this, His own relation to the Father was called in question. He must plainly declare His character and mission.

NOTES

  52  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hall, page 574, sentence 8 (NEED TO ADD!).    Return to text

  53  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Farrar, page 463, sentence 95.).    Return to text

  54  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Kitto, page 407, sentence 9 (NEED TO ADD!).    Return to text

  55  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Farrar, page 463, sentences 97-8.).    Return to text

  56  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Farrar, page 463, sentence 101.).    Return to text

  57  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as V2 (verbatim--see Kitto, page 360.    Return to text

  58  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Kitto, page 360, (NEED TO ADD!)).    Return to text

  59  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Farrar, page 463, sentence 107.).    Return to text

  60  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Farrar, page 464, sentence 113.).    Return to text

  61  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as V2 (verbatim--see Hall, page 575, (NEED TO ADD!): ""There is a time to speak, and a time to keep silence."").    Return to text

  62  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Krummacher, page 178, (NEED TO ADD!)).    Return to text

Page 707

Jesus had said to His disciples, "Whosoever therefore shall confess Me before men, him will I confess also before My Father which is in heaven." Matt. 10:32. Now by His own example He repeated the lesson.

      Every ear was bent to listen, and every eye was fixed on His face as He answered, "Thou hast said."63 A heavenly light seemed to illuminate His pale countenance as He added, "Nevertheless I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven."

      For a moment the divinity of Christ flashed through His guise of humanity. The high priest quailed before the penetrating eyes of the Saviour. That look seemed to read his hidden thoughts, and burn into his heart. Never in afterlife did he forget that searching glance of the persecuted Son of God.

      "Hereafter," said Jesus, "shall ye see the Son of man sitting on the

NOTES

  63  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Krummacher, page 176, (NEED TO ADD!): "Every heart beats audibly, and every eye is fixed on the accused.").    Return to text

Hanna, page 667

The time for all concealment or reserve is past. [70]Jesus will now openly, not only take to himself his own name, assume his office, and assert his Divine prerogatives, but in doing so he will let those earthly dignitaries, who have dragged him thus to their tribunal, before whose judgment-seat he stands, know that the hour is coming which shall witness a strange reversal in their relative positions--he being seen sitting on the seat of power, and they, with all the world beside, seen standing before his bar, as on the clouds of heaven he comes to judge all mankind.

Farrar, page 464

[116]In overacted and ill-omened horror, the unjust judge who had thus supplemented the failure of the perjuries which he had vainly

Page 465

sought--the false High Priest rending his linen robes before the True--demanded of the assembly His instant condemnation.

      “BLASPHEMY!” he exclaimed; “what further need have we of witnesses? See, now ye heard his blasphemy! What is your decision?” [120]And with the confused tumultuous cry, “He is ish marveth” “A man of death,” “Guilty of death,” the dark conclave was broken up, and the second stage of the trial of Jesus was over.

Bennett, page 369

By this action, therefore, the high priest declared his own priesthood null and void.

Page 708

right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven." In these words Christ presented the reverse of the scene then taking place.64 He, the Lord of life and glory, would be seated at God's right hand. He would be the judge of all the earth, and from His decision there could be no appeal. Then every secret thing would be set in the light of God's countenance, and judgment be passed upon every man according to his deeds.

      The words of Christ startled the high priest. The thought that there was to be a resurrection of the dead, when all would stand at the bar of God, to be rewarded according to their works, was a thought of terror to Caiaphas. He did not wish to believe that in future he would receive sentence according to his works. There rushed before his mind as a panorama the scenes of the final judgment. For a moment he saw the fearful spectacle of the graves giving up their dead, with the secrets he had hoped were forever hidden. For a moment he felt as if standing before the eternal Judge, whose eye, which sees all things, was reading his soul, bringing to light mysteries supposed to be hidden with the dead.

      The scene passed from the priest's vision. Christ's words cut him, the Sadducee, to the quick. Caiaphas had denied the doctrine of the resurrection, the judgment, and a future life. Now he was maddened by satanic fury. Was this man, a prisoner before him, to assail his most cherished theories? Rending his robe, that the people might see his pretended horror, he demanded that without further preliminaries the prisoner be condemned for blasphemy.65 "What further need have we of witnesses?" he said; "behold, now ye have heard His blasphemy. What think ye?" And they all condemned Him.

      Conviction mingled with passion led Caiaphas to do as he did. He was furious with himself for believing Christ's words, and instead of rending his heart under a deep sense of truth, and confessing that Jesus was the Messiah, he rent his priestly robes in determined resistance. This act was deeply significant. Little did Caiaphas realize its meaning. In this act, done to influence the judges and secure Christ's condemnation, the high priest had condemned himself. By the law of God he was disqualified for the priesthood.66 He had pronounced upon himself the death sentence.

      A high priest was not to rend his garments. By the Levitical law, this was prohibited under sentence of death. Under no circumstances, on no occasion, was the priest to rend his robe. It was the custom among the Jews for the garments to be rent at the death of friends, but this

NOTES

  64  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 667).    Return to text

  65  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Farrar, page 464-5, sentences 116-120.).    Return to text

  66  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Bennett, page 369).    Return to text

Farrar, page 606, footnote 3

This was forbidden to the High Priest in cases of mourning (Lev. x.6; xxi.10); but the Jewish Halacha considered it lawful in cases of blasphemy, (gidduph) (1 Macc. xi.71; Jos. B.J. ii.15, sec.4.)

Bennett, page 369

But by this one stroke the charge of blasphemy, for which they condemned and executed Christ, is thrown back upon his judges and executioners.

Page 709

custom the priests were not to observe. Express command had been given by Christ to Moses concerning this. Lev. 10:6.

      Everything worn by the priest was to be whole and without blemish. By those beautiful official garments was represented the character of the great antitype, Jesus Christ. Nothing but perfection, in dress and attitude, in word and spirit, could be acceptable to God. He is holy, and His glory and perfection must be represented by the earthly service. Nothing but perfection could properly represent the sacredness of the heavenly service. Finite man might rend his own heart by showing a contrite and humble spirit. This God would discern. But no rent must be made in the priestly robes, for this would mar the representation of heavenly things. The high priest who dared to appear in holy office, and engage in the service of the sanctuary, with a rent robe, was looked upon as having severed himself from God. By rending his garment he cut himself off from being a representative character. He was no longer accepted by God as an officiating priest. This course of action, as exhibited by Caiaphas, showed human passion, human imperfection.

      By rending his garments, Caiaphas made of no effect the law of God, to follow the tradition of men. A man-made law provided that in case of blasphemy a priest might rend his garments in horror at the sin, and be guiltless.67 Thus the law of God was made void by the laws of men.

      Each action of the high priest was watched with interest by the people; and Caiaphas thought for effect to display his piety. But in this act, designed as an accusation against Christ, he was reviling the One of whom God had said, "My name is in Him." Ex. 23:21. He himself was committing blasphemy.68 Standing under the condemnation of God, he pronounced sentence upon Christ as a blasphemer.

      When Caiaphas rent his garment, his act was significant of the place that the Jewish nation as a nation would thereafter occupy toward God. The once favored people of God were separating themselves from Him, and were fast becoming a people disowned by Jehovah. When Christ upon the cross cried out, "It is finished" (John 19:30), and the veil of the temple was rent in twain, the Holy Watcher declared that the Jewish people had rejected Him who was the antitype of all their types, the substance of all their shadows. Israel was divorced from God. Well might Caiaphas then rend his official robes, which signified that he claimed to be a representative of the great High Priest; for no longer had they any meaning for him or for the people. Well might the high priest rend his robes in horror for himself and for the nation.

NOTES

  67  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Farrar, page 606, footnote #3.).    Return to text

  68  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Bennett, page .    Return to text

Farrar, 608; as per Veltman's study

[2]From this moment He was regarded by all the apparitors of the Jewish Court as a heretic, liable to death by stoning; and was only remanded into custody to be kept till break of day, because by daylight only, and in the Lishcat Haggazzith, or Hall of Judgment, and only by a full session of the entire Sanhedrin, could He be legally condemned. [3]And since now they looked upon Him as a "fit person to be insulted with impunity," He was haled through the court-yard to the guardroom with blows and curses, in which it may be that not only the attendant menials, but even the cold but now infuriated Sadducees took their share. . . . [6]And as He was led past that fire He heard-what was to Him a more deadly bitterness than any which His brutal persecutors could pour into His cup of anguish-He heard His boldest Apostle denying Him with oaths. . . .

Farrar, 612; as per Veltman's study

[53]His very meekness, His very silence, His very majesty-the very stainlessness of His Innocence, the very grandeur of His fame-every divine circumstance and quality which raised Him to a height so infinitely immeasurable above His persecutors-all these made Him an all the more welcome victim for their low and devilish ferocity.

March, page 204; picking up from where we were before

      Here He is questioned by the high priest, testified against by false witnesses, smitten by the officers,

Page 205
reviled by the whole assembly, condemned to death by the council, and still, after the decision, kept exposed to every form of contemptuous speech and personal abuse, till the break of day. And while He is subjected to such mockery from His enemies, the heart of Jesus is pierced with a deeper pang, by hearing His own honoured and foremost disciple Peter deny, with bitter oaths and blasphemy, that he ever knew Him.

Farrar, 608; as per Veltman's study

[9]Timidly, and at a distance, two only of the Apostles had so far recovered from their first panic as to follow far in the rear of the melancholy procession. . . . [15]But John, regretting that he should be debarred from entrance, and judging perhaps of his friend's firmness by his own, exerted his influence to obtain admission for him.

Hanna, page 653

[8]It was the coldest hour of the night, the hour that precedes the dawn, and the servants and officers had kindled a fire in the upper end of the hall where they were gathered. Peter did not wish to be recognized, and the best way he thought to preserve his incognito was to put at once the boldest face he could upon it, act as if he had been one of the capturing band and had as good a right to be there as others of that mixed company, as little known in

Page 654
this palace as himself. So stepping boldly forward, and sitting down among the men who were warming themselves around the fire, he made himself one of them. [11]The woman who kept the door was standing near. [12]The strong light of the kindling fire, falling upon that group of faces, her eye fell upon Peter's.

Page 710

      The Sanhedrin had pronounced Jesus worthy of death; but it was contrary to the Jewish law to try a prisoner by night.69 In legally condemnation nothing could be done except in the light of day and before a full session of the council.70 Notwithstanding this, the Saviour was now treated as a condemned criminal, and given up to be abused by the lowest and vilest of humankind.71 The palace of the high priest surrounded an open court in which the soldiers and the multitude had gathered. Through this court, Jesus was taken to the guardroom, on every side meeting with mockery of His claim to be the Son of God. His own words, "sitting on the right hand of power," and, "coming in the clouds of heaven," were jeeringly repeated. While in the guardroom, awaiting His legal trial, He was not protected. The ignorant rabble had seen the cruelty with which He was treated before the council, and from this they took license to manifest all the satanic elements of their nature. Christ's very nobility and godlike bearing goaded them to madness.72 His meekness, His innocence, His majestic patience, filled them with hatred born of Satan.73 Mercy and justice were trampled upon. Never was criminal treated in so inhuman a manner as was the Son of God.

      But a keener anguish rent the heart of Jesus; the blow that inflicted the deepest pain no enemy's hand could have dealt.74 While He was undergoing the mockery of an examination before Caiaphas, Christ had been denied by one of His own disciples.75

      After deserting their Master in the garden, two of the disciples had ventured to follow, at a distance, the mob that had Jesus in charge.76 These disciples were Peter and John. The priests recognized John as a well-known disciple of Jesus, and admitted him to the hall, hoping that as he witnessed the humiliation of his Leader, he would scorn the idea of such a one being the Son of God. John spoke in favor of Peter, and gained an entrance for him also.77

      In the court a fire had been kindled; for it was the coldest hour of the night, being just before the dawn.78 A company drew about the fire, and Peter presumptuously took his place with them. He did not wish to be recognized as a disciple of Jesus.79 By mingling carelessly with the crowd, he hoped to be taken for one of those who had brought Jesus to the hall.80

      But as the light flashed upon Peter's face, the woman who kept the door cast a searching glance upon him.81 She had noticed that he came in with John, she marked the look of dejection on his face, and thought

NOTES

  69  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Farrar, 2/608).    Return to text

  70  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Farrar, 2/608).    Return to text

  71  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Farrar, 3/608).    Return to text

  72  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Farrar, 53/612).    Return to text

  73  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Farrar, 53/612).    Return to text

  74  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Farrar, 6/608).    Return to text

  75  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see March, page 205).    Return to text

  76  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Farrar, 9/609.).    Return to text

  77  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Farrar, 15/609).    Return to text

  78  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 653, sentence 8.). Note that the above examples which are also rated as P1 have less verbal similarity. This indicates that they need to rated much lower.    Return to text

  79  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Hanna, page 653, sentence 9.).    Return to text

  80  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Hanna, page 653, sentence 9.).    Return to text

  81  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 654, sentences 11-2).    Return to text

Farrar, 608; as per Veltman's study

. . . [17]The portress, after the admission of those concerned in the capture, seems to have been relieved (as was only natural at that late hour) by another maid, and advancing to the group of her fellow-servants, she fixed a curious and earnest gaze on the dubious stranger as he sat full in the red glare of the firelight, and then, with a flash of recognition, she exclaimed, "Why, you, as well as the other, were with Jesus of Galilee."

Hanna, page 654

[17]It takes Peter entirely by surprise. [18]It throws him wholly off his guard. . . . [24]Peter's first denial of his Master.

      . . . [30]A cock now crows without.

Farrar, page 609; as per Veltman's study

[10]One of these-the beloved disciple-known perhaps to the High Priest's household as a young fisherman of the Lake of Galilee-had found ready admittance, with no attempt to conceal his sympathies or his identity.

Hanna, page 656

The domestics indeed knew him, and he may be safe from any interference on their part; but there are many here besides who know as little about him as they do about Peter. [78]Yet never once is John questioned or disturbed. [79]And why, but because he had joined none of their companies, had attempted no disguise; his speech was not heard bewraying him. [80]Had you looked for him, you would have found him in some quiet shaded nook of that quadrangle, as near his Master as he could get, yet inviting no scrutiny, exposing himself to no detection.

Page 711

that he might be a disciple of Jesus. She was one of the servants of Caiaphas' household, and was curious to know.82 She said to Peter, "Art not thou also one of this Man's disciples?" Peter was startled and confused; the eyes of the company instantly fastened upon him.83 He pretended not to understand her; but she was persistent, and said to those around her that this man was with Jesus. Peter felt compelled to answer, and said angrily, "Woman, I know Him not." This was the first denial, and immediately the cock crew.84 O Peter, so soon ashamed of thy Master! so soon to deny thy Lord!

      The disciple John, upon entering the judgment hall, did not try to conceal the fact that he was a follower of Jesus.85 He did not mingle with the rough company who were reviling his Master. He was not questioned, for he did not assume a false character, and thus lay himself liable to suspicion.86 He sought a retired corner secure from the notice

NOTES

  82  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Farrar, 17/609 as per Veltman's study.).    Return to text

  83  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 654, sentences 17-8).    Return to text

  84  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Hanna, page 654, sentences 24, 30). Are we really to believe that Ellen G. White pulled two words from one sentence and then skipped over 5 others to get another word?    Return to text

  85  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Farrar, page 609, sentence 10).    Return to text

  86  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 656, sentence 78-80).    Return to text

Hanna, page 656

[71]First easy yet fatal step, this taking on a character not his own. [73]The acted lie precedes the spoken one; prepares for it, almost necessitates it. [74]It was the rash act of sitting down with those men at that fireside, that assumption of the mask, the attempt to appear to be what he was not, which set Peter upon the slippery edge of that slope, down which to such a depth he afterwards descended. Why is it we think so? Because we have asked ourselves the question, Where all this while was his companion John, and how was it faring with him? He too was within the hall, yet there was no challenging or badgering of him.

Hanna, page 655

[56]It was in moral courage, not physical, that Peter failed. By nature he was brave as he was honest. It was no idle boast of his, "Lord, I will follow thee to prison and to death."  [Luke 22:33, not sure which translation Hanna is using] Had there been any open danger to be faced, can we doubt that he would gallantly faced it? [60]Had his Master called him to stand by his side in some open conflict with his enemies, would Peter have forsaken him?

Bennett, 377

Peter's consciousness of quilt, his uneasiness at his conduct, his anxiety about his Master, his horror at the abuse poured upon the Savior, all marked his countenance.

Hanna, page 656

[87]In this matter, then, of denying our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, let us not be high-minded, but fear; and, taking our special warning from that first false step of Peter, should we ever happen to be thrown into the society of those who bear no liking to the name or the cause of the Redeemer, let us beware lest, hiding in inglorious shame our faces from him, we be tempted to say or to do what for us, with our knowledge, would be far worse thing to say or do, than what was said and done by Peter, in his ignorance within the high priest's hall.

Page 712

of the mob, but as near Jesus as it was possible for him to be.87 Here he could see and hear all that took place at the trial of his Lord.

      Peter had not designed that his real character should be known.88 In assuming an air of indifference he had placed himself on the enemy's ground, and he became an easy prey to temptation. If he had been called to fight for his Master, he would have been a courageous soldier; but when the finger of scorn was pointed at him, he proved himself a coward.89 Many who do not shrink from active warfare for their Lord are driven by ridicule to deny their faith. By associating with those whom they should avoid, they place themselves in the way of temptation.90 They invite the enemy to tempt them, and are led to say and do that of which under other circumstances they would never have been guilty.91 The disciple of Christ who in our day disguises his faith through dread of suffering or reproach denies his Lord as really as did Peter in the judgment hall.

      Peter tried to show no interest in the trial of his Master, but his heart was wrung with sorrow as he heard the cruel taunts, and saw the abuse He was suffering. More than this, he was surprised and angry that Jesus should humiliate Himself and His followers by submitting to such treatment.92 In order to conceal his true feelings, he endeavored to join with the persecutors of Jesus in their untimely jests. But his appearance was unnatural. He was acting a lie, and while seeking to talk unconcernedly he could not restrain expressions of indignation at the abuse heaped upon his Master.93

      Attention was called to him the second time, and he was again charged with being a follower of Jesus. He now declared with an oath, "I do not know the Man." Still another opportunity was given him. An hour had passed, when one of the servants of the high priest, being a near kinsman of the man whose ear Peter had cut off, asked him, "Did not I see thee in the garden with Him?" "Surely thou art one of them: for thou art a Galilean, and thy speech agreeth thereto." At this Peter flew into a rage. The disciples of Jesus were noted for the purity of their language, and in order fully to deceive his questioners, and justify his assumed character, Peter now denied his Master with cursing and swearing. Again the cock crew. Peter heard it then, and he remembered the words of Jesus, "Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny Me thrice." Mark 14:30.

      While the degrading oaths were fresh upon Peter's lips, and the shrill

NOTES

  87  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 656, sentence 80, see above table).    Return to text

  88  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Hanna, page 656, sentences 71, 74). Note that sentence #74 should be #73 & #73 should be #72.    Return to text

  89  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 655, sentence 56-60).    Return to text

  90  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Hanna, page 656, sentence 87).    Return to text

  91  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 656, sentence 87).    Return to text

  92  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P3 (loose paraphrase--see Hanna, page 655, sentence 64).    Return to text

  93  In Dr. Veltman's study the first half of this is sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 656, sentence 73) and the second half as P2 (simple paraphrase--Bennett, (NEED TO ADD!)).    Return to text

Hanna, 656

      [87]The oaths with which he sealed his third denial were yet fresh on

Page 657
      Peter's lips, when a second time the cock crew. [88]And that shrill sound was yet ringing in his ears when "the Lord turned and looked upon Peter." [89]How singularly well-timed that look! The Lord is waiting till the fit moment come, and instantly seizes it. It might be wrong in us to say that but for the look, the second cock-crowing would have been as little heeded as the first. It might be wrong in us to say that, but for the awakening sound, the look would of itself have failed in its effect. [93]But we cannot be wrong in saying that the look and the sound each helped the other, and that it was the striking and designed coincidence of the two--their conjunction at the very time when Peter was confirming his third denial by oaths--that formed the external agency which our Lord was pleased to contrive and employ for stirring the sluggish memory and quickening the dead conscience of the apostle. [94]And sluggish memories, dead consciences, are they not often thus awakened by striking outward providences cooperating with the word and with the Spirit? Have none of us been startled thus, as Peter was, amid our denials or betrayals of our Master? Let us bless the instrument, whatever it may be, by which so valuable a service is rendered, and see in its employment only another proof of the thoughtful, loving care of him who would not let us be guilty of such offences without some means being taken to alarm and to recover.

      Let us believe, however, that of the two--the sound and the look--the chief power and virtue lay in the latter. [99]"The Lord turned." [100]He turned from facing those scowling judges; from listening to all the false testimony brought forward against him; from bearing all the insults that masters and servants were heaping upon him; from all the excitements of a trial which he knew was to end in his condemnation to death.

Farrar, page 612

[42]Blessed are those on whom, when He looks in sorrow, the Lord looks also with love! It was enough. Like an arrow through his inmost soul, shot the mute eloquent anguish of that reproachful glance.

Hanna, page 657

[106]But that reproach, quickly as it was perceived, and keenly as it was felt, formed but a veil to the tender, forgiving, sympathizing

Page 658
love which the Master felt for the erring disciple. . . . [112]He felt, as it fell upon him, that it was the look of one, not angrily complaining of injury, not indignantly demanding redress, but only desiring that Peter might feel how unkindly, ungratefully, ungenerously he had acted towards such a Master; of one who wished him above all things to be assured that if he but saw and felt his error, there were readiness and room enough in his heart to receive him back at once and fully into favor--to forgive all, forget all, be all to him he had ever been. . . . [121]He can bear that look no longer; he turns and hurries out of the hall, seeking a place to shed his bitter tears--tears not like those of Judas, of dismal and hopeless remorse,
Page 659
but of genuine and unaffected repentance. . . . [126]We picture him as visiting alone the garden of Gethsemane, not now to sleep while his Lord is suffering; but to seek out the spot which Jesus had hallowed by his agony, to mingle his tears with the great drops of blood which had fallen down to the ground.

Page 713

crowing of the cock was still ringing in his ears, the Saviour turned from the frowning judges, and looked full upon His poor disciple.94 At the same time Peter's eyes were drawn to his Master. In that gentle countenance he read deep pity and sorrow, but there was no anger there.

      The sight of that pale, suffering face, those quivering lips, that look of compassion and forgiveness, pierced his heart like an arrow.95 Conscience was aroused.96 Memory was active.97 Peter called to mind his promise of a few short hours before that he would go with his Lord to prison and to death. He remembered his grief when the Saviour told him in the upper chamber that he would deny his Lord thrice that same night. Peter had just declared that he knew not Jesus, but he now realized with bitter grief how well his Lord knew him, and how accurately He had read his heart, the falseness of which was unknown even to himself.

      A tide of memories rushed over him. The Saviour's tender mercy, His kindness and long-suffering, His gentleness and patience toward His erring disciples,--all was remembered.98 He recalled the caution, "Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat: but I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not." Luke 22:31, 32. He reflected with horror upon his own ingratitude, his falsehood, his perjury.99 Once more he looked at his Master, and saw a sacrilegious hand raised to smite Him in the face. Unable longer to endure the scene, he rushed, heartbroken, from the hall.100

      He pressed on in solitude and darkness, he knew not and cared not whither. At last he found himself in Gethsemane.101 The scene of a few hours before came vividly to his mind. The suffering face of his Lord, stained with bloody sweat and convulsed with anguish, rose before him. He remembered with bitter remorse that Jesus had wept and agonized in prayer alone, while those who should have united with Him in that trying hour were sleeping. He remembered His solemn charge, "Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation." Matt. 26:41. He witnessed again the scene in the judgment hall. It was torture to his bleeding heart to know that he had added the heaviest burden to the Saviour's humiliation and grief. On the very spot where Jesus had poured out His soul in agony to His Father, Peter fell upon his face, and wished that he might die.

      It was in sleeping when Jesus bade him watch and pray that Peter had prepared the way for his great sin. All the disciples, by sleeping

NOTES

  94  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 656, sentences 87-88, 99-100).    Return to text

  95  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Farrar, page 612, sentences 42-4).    Return to text

  96  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 657, sentences 93-4).    Return to text

  97  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 657, sentences 93-4).    Return to text

  98  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Hanna, page 657, sentence 106).    Return to text

  99  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Hanna, page 658, sentence 112).    Return to text

  100  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 658, sentence 121).    Return to text

  101  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Hanna, page 658, sentence 126).    Return to text

Farrar, 615

[75]The problem before them was to convert the ecclesiastical charge of constructive blasphemy into a civil charge of constructive treason. But how could this be done? Not half the members of the Sanhedrin had been present at the hurried, nocturnal, and therefore illegal session in the house of Caiaphas; yet if they were all to condemn Him by a formal sentence, they must all hear something on which to found their vote. [78]In answer to the adjuration of Caiaphas, He had solemnly admitted that He was the Messiah and the Son of God. [79]The latter declaration would have been meaningless as a charge against Him before tribunal of the Romans; but if He would repeat the former, they might twist it into something politically seditious. [80]But He would not repeat it, in spite of their insistence, because He knew that it was open to their wilful misinterpretation, and because they were acting in flagrant violation of their own express rules and traditions, which demanded that every arraigned criminal should be regarded and treated as innocent until his quilt was actually proved.

      Perhaps, as they sat there with their King, bound and helpless before them, standing silent amid their clamorous voices, one or two of their most venerable members may have recalled the very different scene when Shemaia (Sameas) alone had broken the deep silence of their own cowardly terror upon their being convened to pass judgment on Herod for his murders. On that occasion, as Sameas had pointed out, Herod had stood before them, not "in a submissive manner, with his hair dishevelled, and in a black and mourning garment," but "clothed in purple, and with the hair of his head finely trimmed, and with his armed men about him." And since no one dared, for very fear, even to mention the charges against him, Shemaia had prophesied that the day of vengeance should come, and that the very Herod before whom they and their prince Hyrcanus were trembling, would one day be the minister of God's anger against both him and them. What a contrast was the present scene with that former one of half a century before! Now they were clamorous, their King was silent; they were powerful, their King defenceless; they guilty, their King divinely innocent; they the ministers of earthly wrath, their King the arbiter of Divine retribution.

      But at last, to end a scene at once miserable and disgraceful, Jesus spoke. "If I tell you," He said, "ye will not believe; and if I ask you a question, you will not answer me." Still, lest they should have any excuse for failing to understand who He was, He added in tones of solemn warning, "But henceforth shall the Son of Man sit on the right hand of the power of God." "Art Thou then," they all exclaimed, "the Son of God?" "Ye say that I am," He answered, in a formula with which they were familiar, and of which they understood the full significance. And then they too cried out, as Caiaphas had done before, "What further need have we of witness? for we ourselves heard from His own mouth." [92]And so in this third condemnation by the Jewish authority--a condemnation which they thought that Pilate would simply ratify, and so appease their burning hate--ended the third stage of the trial of our Lord. And this sentence also seems to have been followed by a second derision resembling the first, but even more full of insult, and worse to bear than the former, inasmuch as the derision of Priests, and Elders, and Sadducees is even more repulsively odious than that of menials and knaves.

Page 714

in that critical hour, sustained a great loss. Christ knew the fiery ordeal through which they were to pass. He knew how Satan would work to paralyze their senses that they might be unready for the trial. Therefore it was that He gave them warning. Had those hours in the garden been spent in watching and prayer, Peter would not have been left to depend upon his own feeble strength. He would not have denied his Lord. Had the disciples watched with Christ in His agony, they would have been prepared to behold His suffering upon the cross. They would have understood in some degree the nature of His overpowering anguish. They would have been able to recall His words that foretold His sufferings, His death, and His resurrection. Amid the gloom of the most trying hour, some rays of hope would have lighted up the darkness and sustained their faith.

      As soon as it was day, the Sanhedrin again assembled, and again Jesus was brought into the council room. He had declared Himself the Son of God, and they had construed His words into a charge against Him. But they could not condemn Him on this, for many of them had not been present at the night session, and they had not heard His words.102 And they knew that the Roman tribunal would find in them nothing worthy of death.103 But if from His own lips they could all hear those words repeated, their object might be gained.104 His claim to the Messiahship they might construe into a seditious political claim.105

      "Art Thou the Christ?" they said, "tell us." But Christ remained silent.106 They continued to ply Him with questions. At last in tones of mournful pathos He answered, "If I tell you, ye will not believe; and if I also ask you, ye will not answer Me, nor let Me go." But that they might be left without excuse He added the solemn warning, "Hereafter shall the Son of man sit on the right hand of the power of God."

      "Art Thou then the Son of God?" they asked with one voice. He said unto them, "Ye say that I am." They cried out, "What need we any further witness? for we ourselves have heard of His own mouth."

      And so by the third condemnation of the Jewish authorities, Jesus was to die. All that was now necessary, they thought, was for the Romans to ratify this condemnation, and deliver Him into their hands.107

      Then came the third scene of abuse and mockery, worse even than that received from the ignorant rabble.108 In the very presence of the priests and rulers, and with their sanction, this took place.109 Every feeling of sympathy or humanity had gone out of their hearts. If their arguments

NOTES

  102  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Farrar, page 615, sentence 77).    Return to text

  103  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Farrar, page 615, sentence 79a).    Return to text

  104  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Farrar, page 615, sentence 79b).    Return to text

  105  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Farrar, page 615, sentence 79b).    Return to text

  106  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Farrar, page 615, sentence 80).    Return to text

  107  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Farrar, page 617, sentence 92b).    Return to text

  108  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Farrar, page 617, sentence 93).    Return to text

  109  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Farrar, page 617, sentence 93).    Return to text

Hanna, 668

The pronouncing of the sentence from the bench was the signal for a horrible outburst of violence in the hall below.

Ingraham (G. G. Evans, Philadelphia: 1860), page 362

      "This was no sooner heard than some of the men gnashed at Jesus with their teeth, and, but for the gestures and loud voice of the High Priest, they would have made an attempt to get Him into their power. [7]The noise of their rage, so great was the madness of the people, is described as having been like the roaring of wild beasts of the wilderness, rushing to the banquet of a fresh battle-field.

Ingraham, page 366

      [8]"'He is guilty of death!' cried Abner, in a hoarse voice, his eyes red with being up all the night, glaring like a leopard's and advancing to where Jesus stood , bound and bleeding he spat in his face thrice

      "This was followed by a loud outcry for his death;

page 367
and several vile fellows also spat upon Him, and pulled Him by the beard, while for some minutes it seemed to be the only thought of all, who were any ways near His person, to do Him some ignominy; [9]and, but for the protection of Ćmilius and his soldiers, they would have torn Him in pieces.

      [3]"'Is this Jewish justice! cried Ćmilius, indignantly, to Caiaphas. Do you condemn and kill a man without witness? [4]Stand back, for Romans are not used to see men condemned without law. Back fellows--or your blood will flow sooner than his for which you thirst!'

{skipping over 21 lines of text}
Page 368
      "But his voice was drowned amid the roar of the human tempest. Ćmilius and his men were borne away on the crest of the surge, and so pressed by the bodies of the Jews that they could not make use of their weapons. In the wild confusion, Jesus was carried, by fierce hands, to the opposite end of the council-chamber; while Caiaphas strove to appease the wrath of Ćmilius, who insisted that the fate of Jesus should be left with Pilate, the Procurator. After brief consultation with the chief-priests, elders, and scribes, Caiaphas consented; though knowing that Pilate, being a pagan, would not heed a charge of blasphemy, he resolved with the rest, that nothing should be said of that before him, but that He should be accused to him of sedition, and of setting up a kingdom in opposition to the universal empire of Caesar.

      [7]"When Ćmilius, aided by the authority of Caiaphas, at length came where Jesus had been dragged, they found Him standing blindfolded among a crowd of the basest fellows of Jerusalem, who were diverting themselves by slapping his cheeks, and asking Him to tell by his divine knowledge of all things, who did it?

Page 715

were weak, and failed to silence His voice, they had other weapons, such as in all ages have been used to silence heretics,--suffering, and violence, and death.

      When the condemnation of Jesus was pronounced by the judges, a satanic fury took possession of the people. The roar of voices was like that of wild beasts.110 The crowd made a rush toward Jesus, crying, He is guilty, put Him to death!111 Had it not been for the Roman soldiers, Jesus would not have lived to be nailed to the cross of Calvary.112 He would have been torn in pieces before His judges, had not Roman authority interfered, and by force of arms restrained the violence of the mob.113

      Heathen men were angry at the brutal treatment of one against whom nothing had been proved.114 The Roman officers declared that the Jews in pronouncing condemnation upon Jesus were infringing upon the Roman power, and that it was even against the Jewish law to condemn a man to death upon his own testimony.115 This intervention brought a momentary lull in the proceedings; but the Jewish leaders were dead alike to pity and to shame.

      Priests and rulers forgot the dignity of their office, and abused the Son of God with foul epithets. They taunted Him with His parentage. They declared that His presumption in proclaiming Himself the Messiah made Him deserving of the most ignominious death. The most dissolute men engaged in infamous abuse of the Saviour.116 An old garment was thrown over His head, and His persecutors struck Him in the face, saying, "Prophesy unto us, Thou Christ, Who is he that smote Thee?" When the garment was removed, one poor wretch spat in His face.

      The angels of God faithfully recorded every insulting look, word, and act against their beloved Commander. One day the base men who scorned and spat upon the calm, pale face of Christ will look upon it in its glory, shining brighter than the sun.

NOTES

  110  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Ingraham, page 361, sentence 7).    Return to text

  111  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Ingraham, page 366, sentence 8).    Return to text

  112  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Ingraham, page 366, "sentence" 9).    Return to text

  113  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Ingraham, page 366, "sentence" 9).    Return to text

  114  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Ingraham, page 367, sentence 3).    Return to text

  115  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P2 (simple paraphrase--see Ingraham, page 367, sentence 4).    Return to text

  116  In Dr. Veltman's study this sentence is rated as P1 (strict paraphrase--see Ingraham, page 368, sentence 7).    Return to text

Analysis and Verbatim Index

    Out of 350 sentences (one sentence is split into two, so the following numbers total 351), 6 are considered to be verbatim, they are (with their footnote markers so you can readily see how scattered they are throughout the chapter and so you can check the immediate context):

        1) Christ was to be tried formally before the Sanhedrin; but before Annas He was subjected to a preliminary trial.10
        2) Their own rules declared that every man should be treated as innocent until proved guilty.25
        3) And He suffered in proportion to the perfection of the perfection of His holiness and His hatred of sin.29
        4) Of all the throng He alone was calm and serene.42
        5) Caiaphas was desperate.57
        6) There was a time to be silent, and a time to speak.61

      68 sentences are rated as P1 or "strict paraphrase," 41 are rated as P2 (simple paraphrase), 2 are rated as P3 (loose paraphrase), 28 (7.98%) are rated either as B1 (source Bible) or B2 (Bible), 38 are rated as I2 (partial independence) and 168 (47.86%) are rated as I1 (strict independence). Obviously then, from this chapter, we can see that not only did Ellen G. White write more than 20% of her writings (a claim she does not have to prove, but that doesn't stop the critics from claiming the EGW Estate hasn't proven it.), but we can also see that almost 56% is either from her or the Bible so the claim that 80-90% of her material was copied is without foundation.

     

Longest Phrase Index
(nothing shorter than three words are listed here) (again with the footnote markers):

      through the hushed streets of the sleeping city,1
      to the palace of4
      the head of the5
      deference to his5
      was to be10
      before the Sanhedrin10
      execute the sentence of death.11
      ratified by the12
      He questioned Jesus16
      His disciples and His16
      a disturber of the18
      treated as innocent until25
      One of his officers28
      suffered in proportion to the perfection of29
      a perpetual sacrifice30
      was revolting to31
      the most desperate enemies of Jesus35
      light of torches and lanterns37
      took his seat as38
      The Roman soldiers40
      He alone was calm42
      as his rival44
      plenty of witnesses to49
      a mere man52
      a time to61
      a time to speak61
      every eye was fixed63
      in case of blasphemy67
      a full session of the70
      at a distance,76
      it was the coldest hour of the night,78
      did not wish to be recognized79
      the woman who kept the door81
      ringing in his ears94
      like an arrow95
      been present at the102
      of wild beasts110

© David J. Conklin (September 2, 2005 - January 15, 2006)

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