Some critics have accused Ellen White of plagiarizing the contents of The Desire of Ages from the writings of various authors. But, did she really? Below is an analysis of the alleged comparisons.
This example can be found in Rea on page 312 and in Dr. Veltman's study pages 319-62 with the evidence being presented on pages 323-45.
I need the following books to finish this example off:
One problem with those who are "victims" of parallelomania is that they confuse the mere presence of a few words in both texts as being evidence of plagiarism. They completely overlook the context and meaning of the words that are similar, an even more importantly, the far greater number of words that are dissimilar.
It has been noted by students of plagiarism that one can make a work look plagiarized when it is not by carefully using ellipses and discarding all the material that is dissimilar. What we want to do here is to determine whether the critics did a fair analysis, or whether their comparisons actually distorted the real situation. Accordingly, we have color-coded the text so that you, the reader, can easily come to your own conclusion. Material that is not coded means that neither the critics nor Dr. Veltman and his team of researchers, could not, or did not, find anything worthy of note.
Material in Ellen G. White that is an exact, word-for-word match to her alleged source.
Material in Ellen G. White that is similar to her alleged source.
Material that is represented in either Rea's book or Dr. Veltman's study by an ellipsis.
Material dropped from the beginning or end of the paragraph of the alleged source in Rea's book or in Dr. Veltman's study. This also means that Ellen G. White did not use this material in the creation of her book The Desire of Ages.
Material clipped from the beginning or end of a sentence in Rea's book, without giving the reader any indication of such. (Either a capital letter or a period appears where it should not, hiding the fact that material is missing.)
Material that was mis-capitalized or mis-abbreviated in Rea.
Typical author's caveat: all errors are, of course, mine. If you find any errors please let me know and I'll fix them.
Hanna, page 272; added by me
JESUS returned across the lake from Gadara to resume his labors in Galilee. The circuit through its southern towns and villages on which he now embarked was the last he was to make. He looked on the multitudes that gathered round him with a singular compassion. Spiritually to his eye they were as sheep scattered abroad, who when he left them would be without a shepherd. "The harvest," said he to his disciples, "truly is plenteous, but the laborers are few. Pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he will send forth laborers unto his harvest." But was he not himself the Lord of the harvest, and had he no laborers to send forth?
The sight must have been a very extraordinary one, of the Apostles setting off two by two from their Master's side, passing with such eagerness and haste through the towns and villages, preaching and working miracles. To hear one man preach as Jesus did, to see one man confirm his word by doing such wonderful works, filled the whole community with wonder. To what a higher pitch must that wonder have been raised when they saw others commissioned by him, endowed by him, not only preaching as he did, but healing, too, all manner of disease! True, the circle was a small one to whom such special powers were delegated; but half a year or so afterwards, as if to teach that it was not to the twelve alone--to those holding the high office of the apostolate--that Jesus was prepared to grant such a commission, he sent out a band of seventy men, embracing, we are inclined to believe, almost the entire body of his professed disciples in the north who were of the age and had the strength to execute such a task; addressing them in almost the same terms, imposing on them the same duties, and clothing them with the same prerogatives, clearly manifesting by his employment of so large a number of his ordinary disciples that it was not his purpose that the dissemination of the knowledge of his name should be confined to any one small and peculiarly endowed body of men.
The First Evangelists
[This chapter is based on Matt. 10;
William Hanna's The Life of Christ, (1863): 269
But now a singular spectacle is presented. Jesus takes the twelve, and dividing them into pairs, sends them away from him two and two;A delivering to them, as he sends them forth, the address contained in the tenth chapter of the gospel of St. Matthew. A few minute instructions were first given as to the special missionary tour on which they were despatched. It was to be confined strictly to Galilee--to the narrow district that they had already frequently traversed in their Master's company.M But he personally was not to be the burden of his message.F They were not to announce his advent as the Messiah.F He had not done so himself, and their preaching was not to go beyond his own. They were simply to proclaim the advent of the kingdom, leaving the works and words of Jesus to point out the place in that kingdom which he occupied.E The power of working miracles they were for the time to enjoy, but they were not to use it, as they might easily have done, for any selfish or mercenary purpose.
Pentecost, page 67; as per Dr. Veltman's study
He sends them forth by twos, that they may be helpers of each other's faith and courage and bearers of each other's burdens.
John Harris, The Great Teacher. (Gould and Lincoln, 1853): page 250
In the history of his miracles, we see almighty power itself consenting to be led by love, and consecrated to its service. Had he only intended to produce impressions of his majesty,
Page 251or prove the divinity of his mission, he might perhaps have accomplished this sooner by appealing to our fears in miracles of terror and destruction. But the object he aimed at, and the truths he taught, were both of a benevolent nature; and the miracles he performed in confirmation of those truths partook of the same character.G He refused but one application to his miraculous power,--when his disciples rashly desired that fire might descend from heaven on their enemies; but he reminded them that he came "not to destroy men's lives, but to save them." On the night of his apprehension, he touched the wound of an enemy and healed it; for, with him, power and kindness were the same thing. Wherever he came, disease and suffering fled from his presence.H His path might be traced from place to place in lines of life, and health, and joy. Where he was expected, the public way was thronged with forms of helplessness, disease, and woe. Where he had passed, the restored might be seen making trial of their new-found powers;I listeners formed into groups, to hear the tale of healing; and the delighted objects of his compassion rehearsing with earnestness what had passed,J imitating his tones, and event trying to convey an idea of his condescending ways. His voice was the first sound which many of them heard; his name the first word they had pronounced; his blessed form the first sight they had ever beheld.K And often, at the close of a laborious day, when his wearied frame required repose, the children of affliction besieged his retreat, and implored his help. And did they ever seek in vain? Wearied and worn as he was, "he pleased not himself;" he went forth, and patiently listened to their tales of woe, tasted their several complaints, raised each supplicant from the dust, nor left them till he had absorbed their sufferings, and healed them all. He went through the land like a current of vital air, and element of life, diffusing health and joy wherever he appeared.L Had the spiritual object of his advent permitted the continuance of his abode on earth, he would have become the shrine at which all disease would have knelt, the centre to which all suffering would have tended as by a law: to him the world of the afflicted would have gone as on a pilgrimage; and would it not then been equally true, that "he healed them all"?
training of the disciples the example of the Saviour's life was far more effective than any mere doctrinal instruction. When they were separated from Him, every look and tone and word came back to them. Often when in conflict with the enemies of the gospel, they repeated His words, and as they saw their effect upon the people, they rejoiced greatly.
Calling the twelve about Him, Jesus bade them go out two and two through the towns and villages.1 None were sent forth alone, but brother was associated with brother, friend with friend. Thus they could help and encourage each other, counseling and praying together, each one's strength supplementing the other's weakness.2 In the same manner He afterward sent forth the seventy. It was the Saviour's purpose that the messengers of the gospel should be associated in this way.3 In our own time evangelistic work would be far more successful if this example were more closely followed.4
The disciples' message was the same as that of John the Baptist and of Christ Himself: "The kingdom of heaven is at hand."5 They were to enter into no controversy with the people as to whether Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah; but in His name they were to do the same works of mercy as He had done.6 He bade them, "Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, cast out devils: freely ye have received, freely give."
During His ministry Jesus devoted more time to healing the sick than to preaching. His miracles testified to the truth of His words, that He came not to destroy but to save.7 His righteousness went before Him, and the glory of the Lord was His rearward. Wherever He went, the tidings of His mercy preceded Him.8 Where He had passed, the objects of His compassion were rejoicing in health, and making trial of their new-found powers.9 Crowds were collecting around them to hear from their lips the works that the Lord had wrought.10 His voice was the first sound that many had ever heard, His name the first word they had ever spoken, His face the first they had ever looked upon.11 Why should they not love Jesus, and sound His praise? As He passed through the towns and cities He was like a vital current, diffusing life and joy wherever He went.12
The followers of Christ are to labor as He did. We are to feed the hungry, clothe the naked, and comfort the suffering and afflicted. We are to minister to the despairing, and inspire hope in the hopeless. And to us also the promise will be fulfilled, "Thy righteousness shall go before thee; the glory of the Lord shall be thy rearward." Isa. 58:8. The love of Christ, manifested in unselfish ministry, will be more effective in reforming the evildoer than will the sword or the court of
1 Did EGW get her words from Hanna's A or did she get them from the Biblical text? (Mark 6:7) And he called unto him the twelve, and began sending them forth by two and two: and gave them power over unclean spirits; Back to text
2 This material is considered by Dr. Veltman to be a "simple paraphrase" (P2) of a sentence from Pentecost's. Back to text
3 This sentence is considered by Dr. Veltman to be a "loose paraphrase" (P3) of Pentecost's. Back to text
4 This sentence is considered by Dr. Veltman to be in "partial independence" (I2) of Pentecost's. Back to text
5 The underlined portions are considered by Dr. Veltman to be in "partial independence" (I2) of the underlined portion of Hanna's E; note that most is from the Biblical text (Matt. 10:7b). Back to text
6 This sentence is considered by Dr. Veltman to be in "partial independence" of the two sentences of Hanna's marked as F. Back to text
7 This sentence is considered by Dr. Veltman to be a "loose paraphrase" of Harris's G. Back to text
8 This sentence is considered by Dr. Veltman to be a "simple paraphrase" of Harris's H. Back to text
9 This sentence is considered by Dr. Veltman to be "verbatim" of Harris's I. Back to text
10 This sentence is considered by Dr. Veltman to be a "simple paraphrase" of Harris's J. Back to text
11 This sentence is considered by Dr. Veltman to be "verbatim" of Harris's K. Back to text
12 This sentence is considered by Dr. Veltman to be "verbatim" of Harris's L. Back to text
Pentecost, page 401; as per Dr. Veltman's study
Besides it would have been a great tactical mistake, so far as hispurpose to win the Jews was soncerned, had he aroused their deep and bitter prejudices by putting the Samaritans on the same level with them in proclaiming himself as their Messiah. Neither the Jews, the Samaritans, nor the Gentiles were yet ready for the universal proclamation of the gospel.
Hanna, page 269; skipped over 15 lines of this paragraph
As freely as they got, they were to give. They were to be absent but a few days. They were going, not among strangers or enemies, but among friendsM and brethren. Unprovided and unencumbered, they were to cast themselves at once upon the hospitality of those they visited. "Nor was there in this," says Dr. Thomson, "any departure from the simple manners of the country. At this day the farmer sets out on excursions quite as extensive without a para in his purse, and the modern Moslem prophet of Tarshîha thus sends forth his apostles over this identical region. Neither do they encumber themselves with two coats. They are accustomed to sleep in the garments they wear during the day; and in this climate such plain people experience therefrom no inconvenience. They wear coarse shoes, answering to the sandal of the ancients, but never carry two pairs; and, although the staff is the invariable companion of all wayfarers, they are content with one." The directions given to the apostles were proper to a short and hasty journey, such as the one now before them. On entering any town or village, their first inquiry was to be for the susceptible, the well-disposed, about whom, after the excitement consequent upon Christ's former visits, some information might be obtained. They were to salute the house in which such resided, to enter it, and if well-received, were to remain in it, not going from house to house, wasting their time in multiplied
Page 270or prolonged formalities and salutations by the way.N Wherever rejected, they were to shake off the dust of their feet against that house or city; and to create a profound impression of the importance of the errand on which they were despatched, Jesus closes the first part of his address to them by saying, "Verily I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for the land of sodom and Gomorrah, in the day of judgment, than for that city."
justice. These are necessary to strike terror to the lawbreaker, but the loving missionary can do more than this. Often the heart will harden under reproof; but it will melt under the love of Christ. The missionary cannot only relieve physical maladies, but he can lead the sinner to the Great Physician, who can cleanse the soul from the leprosy of sin. Through His servants, God designs that the sick, the unfortunate, those possessed of evil spirits, shall hear His voice. Through His human agencies He desires to be a Comforter such as the world knows not.
The disciples on their first missionary tour were to go only to "the lost sheep of the house of Israel." If they had now preached the gospel to the Gentiles or the Samaritans, they would have lost their influence with the Jews.13 By exciting the prejudice of the Pharisees they would have involved themselves in controversy which would have discouraged them at the outset of their labors.14 Even the apostles were slow to understand that the gospel was to be carried to all nations. Until they themselves could grasp this truth they were not prepared to labor for the Gentiles. If the Jews would receive the gospel, God purposed to make them His messengers to the Gentiles. Therefore they were first to hear the message.
All over the field of Christ's labor there were souls awakened to their need, and hungering and thirsting for the truth. The time had come to send the tidings of His love to these longing hearts. To all these the disciples were to go as His representatives. The believers would thus be led to look upon them as divinely appointed teachers, and when the Saviour should be taken from them they would not be left without instructors.
On this first tour the disciples were to go only where Jesus had been before them, and had made friends.15 Their preparation for the journey was to be of the simplest kind. Nothing must be allowed to divert their minds from their great work, or in any way excite opposition and close the door for further labor. They were not to adopt the dress of the religious teachers, nor use any guise in apparel to distinguish them from the humble peasants. They were not to enter into the synagogues and call the people together for public service; their efforts were to be put forth in house-to-house labor. They were not to waste time in needless salutations, or in going from house to house [Luke 10:7] for entertainment.16 But in every place they were to accept the hospitality of those who were worthy, those who would welcome them heartily as if entertaining Christ Himself. They were to enter the dwelling with the beautiful salutation, "Peace be to this house." Luke 10:5. That home would be blessed by their prayers, their
13 This underlined portion of this sentence is considered by Dr. Veltman to be a "loose paraphrase" (P3) of Pentecost. Back to text
14 This is considered by Dr. Veltman to be in "partial independence" (I2) of Pentecost. Back to text
15 This sentence is considered by Dr. Veltman to be a "loose paraphrase" (P3) of Hanna's M. Back to text
16 This sentence is considered by Dr. Veltman to be a "strict paraphrase" (P1) of Hanna's N. Back to text
Hanna, page 270; picking up from where we left off above
Hitherto, all that he had said had direct reference to the short and rapid journey that lay immediately before them. But limited as it was, the task now committed to them carried in it the germ, the type of that larger apostolic work for which, by the gift of the Spirit, they were to be qualified, and in which, for so many years after their Master's death, they were to be engaged. And so, after speaking of the one, Jesus passes on to the other, the nearer and narrower mission sinking out of sight as his eye rests on the farther and broader mission that lay before them.O In the one, the nearer, there was to be no opposition or persecution; in the other, a fiery trial was in store for the faithful. The one, the nearer, was to be confined to the lost sheep of the house of Israel; in the other, they were to come into collision with the kings and governors of the Gentiles. It is of this second period--of the persecution on the one hand, and the gifts of the qualifying Spirit on the other, by which it should be distinguished--that Jesus speaks in the passage embraced in the verses from the sixteenth to the twenty-third. The second division of the address closes, as the first does, by a "Verily I say unto you." The fact thus solemnly affirmed pointing, in the destruction of Jerusalem, to the close of that period over which Christ's prophetic eye was now ranging: "Verily I say unto you, Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel, till the Son of man be come."P
But now the whole earthly mission of the twelve presents itself to the Saviour's eye but as the preface and prelude to that continuous work, abiding work of witnessing for him upon this earth to which each separate disciple of the cross is called. Dropping, therefore, all directions and allusions referring exclusively to the apostles and to apostolic times, Jesus, in the closing and larger portion of the address, from the twenty-fourth to the forty second verse, speaks generally of all true discipleship to himself upon this earth: foretelling its fortunes, describing its character, its duties, its encouragements, and its rewards.
Harris, page 308
Now while our Lord, in various way, takes cognizance of this struggle,-- for one of his great excellances, as the founder of a new religion, was the most transparent simplicity and candor,-- while he ever enlarges the conflict, presents his followers with a plan of the battle, points out its imminent hazards, and exhorts them, before entering on it, to "count the cost," he at the same time assures them of such supernatural succors as shall enable their weakness to do the deeds of Omnipotence, he reminds them that they struggle for an invisible world, that they fight in the fellowship with all the children of light, that more than angels are in their ranks for he promises them the abundant aid of the Eternal Spirit. Their infirmities may be numerous, their sins may be might, their ignorance may seem invincible; but an almighty Agent is employed for the special purpose of piercing that ignorance, overpowering that sinfulness, and surrounding them with an element of light and holiness.
songs of praise, and the opening of the Scriptures in the family circle.
These disciples were to be heralds of the truth, to prepare the way for the coming of their Master. The message they had to bear was the word of eternal life, and the destiny of men depended upon their reception or rejection of it. To impress the people with its solemnity, Jesus bade His disciples, "Whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear your words, when ye depart out of that house or city, shake off the dust of your feet. Verily I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment, than for that city."
Now the Saviour's eye penetrates the future; He beholds the broader fields in which, after His death, the disciples are to be witnesses for Him.17 His prophetic glance takes in the experience of His servants through all the ages till He shall come the second time.18 He shows His followers the conflicts they must meet; He reveals the character and plan of the battle.19 He lays open before them the perils they must encounter, the self-denial that will be required.20 He desires them to count the cost, that they may not be taken unawares by the enemy.21 Their warfare is not to be waged against flesh and blood, but "against the principalities, against the powers, against the world rulers of this darkness, against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places." Eph. 6:12, R.V. They are to contend with supernatural forces, but they are assured of supernatural help.22 All the intelligences of heaven are in this army.23 And more than angels are in the ranks.24 The Holy Spirit, the representative of the Captain of the Lord's host, comes down to direct the battle.25 Our infirmities may be many, our sins and mistakes grievous; but the grace of God is for all who seek it with contrition.26 The power of Omnipotence is enlisted in behalf of those who trust in God.27
17 From Hanna go to page 352 in EGW, second paragraph. From EGW goto Hanna, page 270; two different sentences being "used"--marked with O. Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "simple paraphrase" (P2). Back to text
18 From Hanna go to page 352 in EGW, second paragraph. From EGW goto Hanna, page 270--marked with P. Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "loose paraphrase" (P3). Back to text
19 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "strict paraphrase" (P1) of Harris, page 308. Back to text
20 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "loose paraphrase" (P3) of Harris, page 308. Back to text
21 Dr. Veltman considers this to be in "partial independence" (I2) of Harris, page 308. See also Luke 14:28 for similar wording. Back to text
22 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "simple paraphrase" (P2) of Harris, page 308. Back to text
23 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "loose paraphrase" (P3) of Harris, page 308. Back to text
24 Dr. Veltman considers this to be "verbatim" (V2) of Harris, page 308. Back to text
25 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "loose paraphrase" (P3) of Harris. Back to text
26 Dr. Veltman considers this to be in "partial independence" (I2) of Harris. Back to text
27 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "loose paraphrase" (P3) of Harris. Back to text
Miller's Week-day Religion, page 187; as per Dr.Veltman's study
A true appreciation of the story of the teachings of the gospel will reveal the fact that our Lord himself exercised the most beautiful and thoughtful tact in all his mingling among the people. He was utterly incapable of rudeness. He never needlessly spoke a harsh word. He never gave needless pain to a sensitive heart. He was most considerate of human weakness. . . . He never suppressed the truth, but he uttered it always in love. Even the most terrible woes he pronounced against unbelief and hypocrisy I do not believe were spoken in the tones of thunder trembling with rage which men impart to their anathemas. I think we must read them in the light of his tears over the city of his love, which had rejected him, pulsing and tremulous with divine and sorrowing tenderness. His whole life tells of most considerate thoughtfulness. He had a wondrous reverence for human life. Every scrap of humanity was sacred and precious in his eyes. He bore himself always in an attitude of tenderest regard for every one. How could it be otherwise, since he saw in every one a lost being whom by love he might win and rescue, or whom by a harsh word he might drive for ever beyond hope?
"Behold," said Jesus, "I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves: be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves." Christ Himself did not suppress one word of truth, but He spoke it always in love.28 He exercised the greatest tact, and thoughtful, kind attention in His intercourse with the people.29 He was never rude, never needlessly spoke a severe word, never gave needless pain to a sensitive soul.30 He did not censure human weakness.31 He fearlessly denounced hypocrisy, unbelief, and iniquity, but tears were in His voice as He uttered His scathing rebukes.32 He wept over Jerusalem, the city He loved, that refused to receive Him, the Way, the Truth, and the Life.33 They rejected Him, the Saviour, but He regarded them with pitying tenderness, and sorrow so deep that it broke His heart.34 Every soul was precious in his eyes.35 While He always bore himself with divine dignity, He bowed with tenderest regard to every member of the family of God.36 In all men He saw fallen souls whom it was His mission to save.37
The servants of Christ are not to act out the dictates of the natural heart. They need to have close communion with God, lest, under provocation, self rise up, and they pour forth a torrent of words that are unbefitting, that are not as dew or the still showers that refresh the withering plants. This is what Satan wants them to do; for these are his methods. It is the dragon that is wroth; it is the spirit of Satan that is revealed in anger and accusing. But God's servants are to be representatives of Him. He desires them to deal only in the currency of heaven, the truth that bears His own image and superscription. The power by which they are to overcome evil is the power of Christ. The glory of Christ is their strength. They are to fix their eyes upon His loveliness. Then they can present the gospel with divine tact and gentleness. And the spirit that is kept gentle under provocation will speak more effectively in favor of the truth than will any argument, however forcible.
Those who are brought in controversy with the enemies of truth have to meet, not only men, but Satan and his agents. Let them remember the Saviour's words, "Behold, I send you forth as lambs among wolves." Luke 10:3. Let them rest in the love of God, and the spirit will be kept calm, even under personal abuse. The Lord will clothe them with a divine panoply. His Holy Spirit will influence the mind and heart, so that their voices shall not catch the notes of the baying of the wolves.
28 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "strict paraphrase" (P1) of Miller. Back to text
29 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "strict paraphrase" (P1) of Miller. Back to text
30 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "strict paraphrase" (P1) of Miller. Back to text
31 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "strict paraphrase" (P1) of Miller. Back to text
32 Dr. Veltman considers this to be in "partial independence" (I2) of Miller. Back to text
33 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "partial independence" (I2) of Miller. Back to text
34 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "simple paraphrase" (P2) of Miller. Back to text
35 Dr. Veltman considers this to be "verbatim" (V2) of Miller. Back to text
36 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "simple paraphrase" (P2) of Miller. Back to text
37 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "simple paraphrase" (P2) of Miller. Back to text
Continuing His instruction to His disciples, Jesus said, "Beware of men." They were not to put implicit confidence in those who knew not God, and open to them their counsels; for this would give Satan's agents an advantage. Man's inventions often counterwork God's plans. Those who build the temple of the Lord are to build according to the pattern shown in the mount,--the divine similitude. God is dishonored and the gospel is betrayed when His servants depend on the counsel of men who are not under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Worldly wisdom is foolishness with God. Those who rely upon it will surely err.
"They will deliver you up to councils, . . . yea and before governors and kings shall ye be brought for My sake, for a testimony to them and to the Gentiles." Matt. 10:17, 18, R. V. Persecution will spread the light. The servants of Christ will be brought before the great men of the world, who, but for this, might never hear the gospel. The truth has been misrepresented to these men. They have listened to false charges concerning the faith of Christ's disciples. Often their only means of learning its real character is the testimony of those who are brought to trial for their faith. Under examination these are required to answer, and their judges to listen to the testimony borne. God's grace will be dispensed to His servants to meet the emergency. "It shall be given you," says Jesus, "in that same hour what ye shall speak. For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you." As the Spirit of God illuminates the minds of His servants, the truth will be presented in its divine power and preciousness. Those who reject the truth will stand to accuse and oppress the disciples. But under loss and suffering, even unto death, the Lord's children are to reveal the meekness of their divine Example. Thus will be seen the contrast between Satan's agents and the representatives of Christ. The Saviour will be lifted up before the rulers and the people.
The disciples were not endowed with the courage and fortitude of the martyrs until such grace was needed. Then the Saviour's promise was fulfilled. When Peter and John testified before the Sanhedrin council, men "marveled; and they took knowledge of them, that they had been with Jesus." Acts 4:13. Of Stephen it is written that "all that sat in the council, looking steadfastly on him, saw his face as it had been the face of an angel." Men "were not able to resist the wisdom and the spirit by which he spake." Acts 6:15, 10. And Paul, writing of his own trial at the court of the Caesars, says, "At my first defense no one took my
Hanna, page 270; picking up where we left off above.
Jesus would hold out no false hopes--would have no one become his upon any false expectations. Misconception, misrepresentation, ill-treatment of one kind or other, his true and faithful followers must
Page 271be prepared to meet--to meet without surprise, without complaint, without resentment. The disciple need not hope to be above his Master, the servant above his Lord.jj "If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub, how much more them of his household?"kk But why should the covert slander, the calumny whispered in secret, be dreaded, when the day is coming when all shall be revealed, all that is hid shall be made known? With his disciples there shall be no concealment of any kind.ll He came to found no secret society, linked by hidden bombs, depository of inner mysteries. True, there were things that he addressed alone to the apostles' ear in private, but the secrecy and reserve so practised by him was meant to be temporary and transient.mm
part, but all forsook me. . . . But the Lord stood by me, and strengthened me; that through me the message might be fully proclaimed, and that all the Gentiles might hear: and I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion." 2 Tim. 4:16, 17, R. V.
The servants of Christ were to prepare no set speech to present when brought to trial. Their preparation was to be made day by day in treasuring up the precious truths of God's word, and through prayer strengthening their faith. When they were brought into trial, the Holy Spirit would bring to their remembrance the very truths that would be needed.
A daily, earnest striving to know God, and Jesus Christ whom He has sent, would bring power and efficiency to the soul. The knowledge obtained by diligent searching of the Scriptures would be flashed into the memory at the right time. But if any had neglected to acquaint themselves with the words of Christ, if they had never tested the power of His grace in trial, they could not expect that the Holy Spirit would bring His words to their remembrance. They were to serve God daily with undivided affection, and then trust Him.
So bitter would be the enmity to the gospel that even the tenderest earthly ties would be disregarded. The disciples of Christ would be betrayed to death by the members of their own households. "Ye shall be hated of all men for My name's sake," He added; "but he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved." Mark 13:13. But He bade them not to expose themselves unnecessarily to persecution. He Himself often left one field of labor for another, in order to escape from those who were seeking His life. When He was rejected at Nazareth, and His own townsmen tried to kill Him, He went down to Capernaum, and there the people were astonished at His teaching; "for His word was with power." Luke 4:32. So His servants were not to be discouraged by persecution, but to seek a place where they could still labor for the salvation of souls.
The servant is not above his master.38 The Prince of heaven was called Beelzebub, and His disciples will be misrepresented in like manner.39 But whatever the danger, Christ's followers must avow their principles. They should scorn concealment.40 They cannot remain uncommitted until assured of safety in confessing the truth. They are set as watchmen, to warn men of their peril. The truth received from Christ must be imparted to all, freely and openly.41 Jesus said, "What I tell you in darkness, that speak ye in light: and what ye hear in the ear, that preach ye upon the housetops."
38 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "strict paraphrase" (P1) of Hanna's jj. Back to text
39 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "strict paraphrase" (P1) of Hanna's kk. Compare this and the one above with the Biblical text: (Matthew 10:25) "It is enough for the disciple that he be as his master, and the servant as his lord. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub, how much more shall they call them of his household?" Back to text
40 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "strict paraphrase" (P1) of Hanna's ll. Back to text
41 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "loose paraphrase" (P3) of Hanna's mm. Back to text
Hanna, page 271; picking up from where we were above"What I tell you in darkness, that speak ye in light: and what ye hear in the ear, that preach ye upon the housetops." The doing so may imperial life, the life of the body; but what of that? "Fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell." But even the life of the body shall be watched over, not suffered needlessly to perish. Not a single sparrow, though worth but half a farthing, falls to the ground without God's knowledge, not a hair of your head but is numbered by him.oo "Fear ye not therefore, ye are of more value than many sparrows." The head whose hairs are numbered by him, your Father will not see lightly or uselessly cut off. Leave your fate then in his hands, and whatever it may be, be open, be honest, be full, be fearless in the testimony ye bear, for "Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my Father which is in heaven.nn Times of outward persecution may not last, but think not that on this earth there shall ever be perfect peace. "I came not to send peace, but a sword," a sword which, though it drop out of the open hand of the persecutor, shall not want other hands to take it up and wield it differently. "I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law, and a man's foes shall be they of his own household." And to no severer trial shall my followers be subject, than when it is not force but affection, the affection of the nearest and dearest on earth, that would draw them away from me, or tempt them to be unfaithful to my cause.
Jesus Himself never purchased peace by compromise. His heart overflowed with love for the whole human race, but He was never indulgent to their sins. He was too much their friend to remain silent while they were pursuing a course that would ruin their souls,--the souls He had purchased with His own blood. He labored that man should be true to himself, true to his higher and eternal interest. The servants of Christ are called to the same work, and they should beware lest, in seeking to prevent discord, they surrender the truth. They are to "follow after the things which make for peace" (Rom. 14:19); but real peace can never be secured by compromising principle. And no man can be true to principle without exciting opposition. A Christianity that is spiritual will be opposed by the children of disobedience. But Jesus bade His disciples, "Fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul." Those who are true to God need not fear the power of men nor the enmity of Satan.42 In Christ their eternal life is secure. Their only fear should be lest they surrender the truth, and thus betray the trust with which God has honored them.
It is Satan's work to fill men's hearts with doubt. He leads them to look upon God as a stern judge. He tempts them to sin, and then to regard themselves as too vile to approach their heavenly Father or to excite His pity. The Lord understands all this. Jesus assures His disciples of God's sympathy for them in their needs and weaknesses. Not a sigh is breathed, not a pain felt, not a grief pierces the soul, but the throb vibrates to the Father's heart.
The Bible shows us God in His high and holy place, not in a state of inactivity, not in silence and solitude, but surrounded by ten thousand times ten thousand and thousands of thousands of holy intelligences, all waiting to do His will. Through channels which we cannot discern He is in active communication with every part of His dominion. But it is in this speck of a world, in the souls that He gave His only-begotten Son to save, that His interest and the interest of all heaven is centered. God is bending from His throne to hear the cry of the oppressed. To every sincere prayer He answers, "Here am I." He uplifts the distressed and downtrodden. In all our afflictions He is afflicted. In every temptation and every trial the angel of His presence is near to deliver.
Not even a sparrow falls to the ground without the Father's notice. [ Matthew 10:29]43 Satan's hatred against God leads him to hate every object of the Saviour's care. He seeks to mar the handiwork of God, and he delights in destroying
42 Dr. Veltman considers this to be in "partial independance" (I2) of Hanna's nn. Back to text
43 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "strict paraphrase" (P1) of Hanna's oo. Back to text
Hanna, page 271; picking up from where we left off aboveBut whosoever shall deny me before men, him will I also deny before my Father which is in heaven." Times of outward persecution may not last, but think not that on this earth there shall ever be perfect peace.pp "I came not to send peace, but a sword," a sword which, though it drop out of the open hand of the persecutor, shall not want other hands to take it up and wield it differently. "I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter in law against her mother in law. And a man's foes shall be they of his own household." And to no severer trial shall my followers be subject, than when it is not force but affection, the affection of the nearest and dearest on earth, that would draw them away from me, or tempt them to be unfaithful to my cause.rr
'But above all other claims is the one I make on the love of all who choose me ads their Saviour and their Lord. I must be first in their affections: the throne of their heart must be mine; no rival per-
Page 272mitted to sit by my side. It is not that I am selfishly exactive of affection; it is not that I am jealous of other love; it is not that I wish or ask that you should love others less in order to love me more; but it is, that what I am to you, what I have done for you, what from this time forth and for evermore I am prepared to be to and to do for you, gives me such a priority and precedence in the claim I make, "that he loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me: and he that loveth son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me."ss
Cumming, page 87
[skipping over 13 lines from the beginning of the paragraph] Now the direct design and tendency of the Gospel is to promote peace; but it will be the occasion, or the incidental effect, not the direct effect, of the Gospel, that sin will rise up against holiness, impurity against purity, the lover of the world against the lover of God, the lover of the praise of men against him who loveth the praise of God only;qq and the result will be
Page 88[This paragraph continues on for another 31 lines]
even the dumb creatures. It is only through God's protecting care that the birds are preserved to gladden us with their songs of joy. But He does not forget even the sparrows. "Fear ye not therefore, ye are of more value than many sparrows."
Jesus continues: As you confess Me before men, so I will confess you before God and the holy angels. You are to be My witnesses upon earth, channels through which My grace can flow for the healing of the world. So I will be your representative in heaven. The Father beholds not your faulty character, but He sees you as clothed in My perfection. I am the medium through which Heaven's blessings shall come to you. And everyone who confesses Me by sharing My sacrifice for the lost shall be confessed as a sharer in the glory and joy of the redeemed.
He who would confess Christ must have Christ abiding in him. He cannot communicate that which he has not received. The disciples might speak fluently on doctrines, they might repeat the words of Christ Himself; but unless they possessed Christlike meekness and love, they were not confessing Him. A spirit contrary to the spirit of Christ would deny Him, whatever the profession. Men may deny Christ by evilspeaking, by foolish talking, by words that are untruthful or unkind. They may deny Him by shunning life's burdens, by the pursuit of sinful pleasure. They may deny Him by conforming to the world, by uncourteous behavior, by the love of their own opinions, by justifying self, by cherishing doubt, borrowing trouble, and dwelling in darkness. In all these ways they declare that Christ is not in them. And "whosoever shall deny Me before men," He says, "him will I also deny before My Father which is in heaven."
The Saviour bade His disciples not to hope that the world's enmity to the gospel would be overcome, and that after a time its opposition would cease.44 He said, "I came not to send peace, but a sword." This creating of strife is not the effect of the gospel, but the result of opposition to it.45 Of all persecution the hardest to bear is variance in the home, the estrangement of dearest earthly friends.46 But Jesus declares, "He that loveth father or mother more than Me is not worthy of Me: and he that loveth son or daughter more than Me is not worthy of Me.47 And he that taketh not his cross, and followeth after Me, is not worthy of Me."
The mission of Christ's servants is a high honor, and a sacred trust. "He that receiveth you," He says, "receiveth Me, and he that receiveth
44 From EGW goto Hanna, page 271--marked as pp. Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "loose paraphrase" (P3). Back to text
45 Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "simple paraphrase" (P2) of Cumming marked as qq. Back to text
46 From EGW goto Hanna, page 271--marked as rr. Dr. Veltman considers this to be a "loose paraphrase" (P3). Back to text
47 Note that Hanna (marked as ss) has the first two words of the Biblical text transposed; while EGW has it correctly. Back to text
Me receiveth Him that sent Me." No act of kindness shown to them in His name will fail to be recognized and rewarded. And in the same tender recognition He includes the feeblest and lowliest of the family of God: "Whosoever shall give to drink unto one of these little ones"--those who are as children in their faith and their knowledge of Christ--"a cup of cold water only in the name of a disciple, verily I say unto you, he shall in nowise lose his reward."
Thus the Saviour ended His instruction. In the name of Christ the chosen twelve went out, as He had gone, "to preach the gospel to the poor, . . . to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, to preach the acceptable year of the Lord." Luke 4:18, 19.
In this example there are 44 words that are either exact or similar out of 447 total words which amounts to 9.8434% vs. the 80-90% that Rea claims.
I'm not surprised to find the once again Rea has clipped paragraphs when he presents the evidence. Note that I helped Rea out a bit.
Take very careful note of the material EGW did not use! Why should she do that if she copied 80-90% or "wholesale" as her critics claim?
multitudes that gathered, page 349; I found this phrase
through the towns and villages, page 350; I found this phrase
two and two1, page 350
Where He had passed,,9 page 350
making trial of their new-found powers9, page 350
His voice was the first sound,11 page 350
His name the first word they had,11 page 350
the first they had ever11, page 350
like a vital current,12 page 350
and joy wherever He12, page 350
going from house to house16, page 351
the hospitality of those, page 351; I found this phrase
plan of the battle19, page 352
count the cost,21, page 352
more than angels are in24, page 352
infirmities may be26, page 352
truth, but He28, page 353
it always in love.28, page 353
never needlessly spoke a,30, page 353
never gave needless pain to a sensitive30, page 353
precious in his eyes.35, page 353
above his master38, page 355
falls to the ground without43, page 356
of the gospel45, page 357
According to Veltman's findings 5 sentences are considered to be "verbatim":
Where He had passed, the objects of His compassion were rejoicing in health, and making trial of their new-found powers.9
His voice was the first sound that many had ever heard, His name the first word they had ever spoken, His face the first they had ever looked upon.11
As He passed through the towns and cities He was like a vital current, diffusing life and joy wherever He went.12
And more than angels are in the ranks.24
Every soul was precious in his eyes.35
Of the 217 sentences in this chapter Dr. Veltman and his team of researchers considered 5 to be verbatim, 31 to be paraphrases, 14 had their source as the Bible, 12 were Bible quotes, and 155 were independent (or, 71.4286%). This means that 76.9585% was either from the Bible and Ellen G. White; this lies within the range of 80-90% that the critics claim she copied. It looks more like they either got their numbers transposed or forgot what the numbers meant.
2) Dr. Veltman astutely observes (page 353):
... time and again the parallels between sources tempt us to initiate a study of literary borrowing among Ellen White's contemporaries. Such an investigation should be undertaken to inform us on the literary practices of writers on religion in the 19th century. Only when we have a realistic and fairly comprehensive understanding of the literary conventions followed by her contemporaries can we with justification evaluate Ellen White's position relative to the question of plagiarism. (emphasis added)
It should be noted that while this has yet to be done by anyone, critic or otherwise, it has not stopped the critics from claiming that Ellen G. White committed plagiarism.
2) One problem with looking at the evidence such as we have it today is that some people persist in seeing parallels where none actually exist. As Dr. Veltman observed (page 354):
The very nature of a study of source parallels [is that it] leads one to emphasize similarities over dissimilarities. Often obvious agreements are noted and the more subtle disagreements between two writers are overlooked.
This phenomena of "parallelomania" may be especially acute in people who see things in terms of black-and-white when the real world is more subtle shades.
3) One problem with those who make the claim of plagiarism is that they assume that because there is similarities in the structural elements of the two texts under examination they automatically assume that the latter was copied from the first. But, as Veltman observed (page 356) this may not be the case at all:
The structural elements parallel to Hanna's chapter on "The Mission of the Twelve" are to be explained on the basis of two writers following the same source rather than on one [EGW] copying the other [Hanna].