Three Messages of Revelation 14:6-12
Chapter Four
by J.N.Andrews

The Fall of Babylon

The Fall of Babylon not the Burning of Rome
The Fall of Babylon not the Loss of her Civil Power
It is a Moral Fall
The Wine of Babylon The Churches tested by the First Proclamation
Connection of the First and Second Messages
Testimonies relative to the Fallen State of the Churches
Recent Revivals
Spiritualism as a Confirmation of the Views here Presented
Destruction of Babylon
Duty of God's People.
Failure of Reformation


WHAT constitutes the fall of Babylon? Those who contend that the Babylon of Revelation is the city of Rome, answer that the fall of Babylon is the burning of Rome; while those who make Babylon a symbol of the Church of Rome only, answer that this fall is the loss of her civil power, -the fall of the woman from the beast. We dissent from both these positions, believing that the fall of Babylon is a moral fall, and that it denotes her rejection, as a body, of God. That the fall of Babylon is not the burning of Rome, appears from the following facts:-

1. The cry, "Come out of her, my people, " is made after the announcement that she has fallen. Rev. 18:2, 4. It is therefore evident that Babylon exists after her fall, and that the people of God are still in her midst; therefore her fall must be distinct from her destruction.

2. When it is said, "Come out of her, my people, " it is added as a reason, "that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues. " Her fall had taken place; but she still existed to sin against God, and her plagues were yet future; therefore her fall and her destruction were events entirely distinct.

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3. When her plagues are named in verse 8, they are said to be death, mourning, and famine, and utter destruction by fire. Her plagues were yet future at the time of her fall; consequently her fall is not her destruction by fire. Between those two events the people of God make their escape from her.

4. The burning of Rome would not cause that city to become the hold of foul spirits and the cage of every unclean and hateful bird. Indeed, the only effectual cleansing that wicked city will ever receive will be by fire. These facts clearly evince that the fall of Babylon is not the burning of Rome.

Besides this, we have clearly proved that Rome is not the Babylon of the Apocalypse, which is sufficient of itself on this point.


That the fall of Babylon is not the loss of civil power by the Papal Church, the following facts clearly prove:-

1. This would make the angel say, Babylon is fallen, that is, has lost her civil power, because she made all nations drink of her wine. Such a statement would be false; for it was by this very means that she obtained her power.

2. Babylon becomes the hold of every foul spirit and the cage of every unclean and hateful bird in consequence of her fall. Rev. 18:1, 2. It would be absurd to represent this as the consequence of her loss of civil power.

3. The loss of civil power is not the fall of Babylon, for this would not make her more sinful than before, nor would such a fall as this furnish a reason why the people of God should leave her.

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We understand that the fall of Babylon is her rejection by God, that the Holy Spirit leaves her in consequence of her alienation from God and her union with the world, and that thus she is left to the spirits of devils. As an illustration, we will refer to the fall of the Jewish Church, the harlot of Eze. 16. This fall is distinctly stated in Rom. 11. Its particulars may be gathered from Matt. 21:43; 23; 12:43-45.

That her fall was her rejection by God, her destruction being deferred for a considerable period, the following facts prove:-

1. The nature of the reasons assigned for the fall of Babylon proves that it is a moral fall; for it is because she has made the nations drunk with her wine. In other words, it is her wickedness that has caused God to reject her. 2. The consequences of her fall testify that that fall is her rejection by God, and not her destruction; for her fall causes her to become the hold of foul spirits, and the cage of unclean and hateful birds. This shows that God has given her up to strong delusions. It is for this reason that the voice from heaven cries, "Come out of her, my people.


The cause of the fall of Babylon is thus stated: "She made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication. " Her fornication was her unlawful union with the kings of the earth; and the wine is that with which the church has intoxicated the nations of the earth. There is but one thing that this can refer to; viz. , false doctrine. This harlot, in consequence of her unlawful union with the powers of the earth, has corrupted the pure truths of the Bible, and with the wine or her false doctrine has intoxicated the nations. A few instances of her corruption of the truths of the Bible must suffice:-

1. The doctrine of a thousand years of peace and prosperity before the coming of the Lord. This doctrine will probably prove the ruin of as many souls as any heresy that ever cursed the church.

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2. The corruption of the ordinance of baptism. Burial in baptism is the divinely authorized memorial of our Lord's burial and resurrection. This has been changed to sprinkling, or pouring, the fitting memorial of but one thing; viz. , the folly and presumption of man.

3. The change of the fourth commandment. The pagan festival of Sunday has been substituted by the church for the rest-day of the Lord. The Bible plainly teaches that the sanctified rest-day of the Lord is the divinely authorized memorial of the rest of Jehovah from the work of creation. But the church has changed this to the first day of the week, to make it a memorial of our Lord's resurrection, in the place of baptism, which has been changed to sprinkling.

4. The doctrine of the natural immortality of the soul. This was derived from the pagan mythology, and was introduced into the church by means of distinguished converts from paganism, who became "fathers of the church. " This doctrine makes man's last foe - death - the gate to endless joy, and leaves the resurrection as a thing of minor importance. It is the foundation of modern Spiritualism.

5. The doctrine of the saints' inheritance beyond the bounds of time and space. For this fable, multitudes have turned from the scriptural view of the everlasting kingdom in the new earth.

6. The spiritual second advent. It is well known that the great majority of religious teachers and commentators of the present time openly advocate the view that Christ's second advent, as brought to view in Matt. 24, took place at the destruction of Jerusalem; and also that he comes the second time whenever any person dies.

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7. Until the time when slavery was forcibly abolished, the institution was upheld in the most confident manner from the Old and New Testaments, by some of the leading doctors of divinity of most denominations; and some of the most distinguished and skillful even tried to find authority for it in the golden rule.

8. Finally, the lowering of the standard of godliness to the dust. This has been carried so far that the multitudes are made to believe that "every one that saith, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven. " In proof of this, I might appeal to almost every tombstone or funeral discourse.

God appointed the church to be the light of the world, and at the same time ordained that his word should be the light of the church. But when the church becomes unfaithful to her trust, and corrupts the pure doctrines of the gospel, as a natural consequence the world becomes intoxicated with her false doctrine. That the nations of the earth are in such a condition at the present time, is too obvious to be denied. The world is intoxicated in the pursuit of riches and honor, but the sin lies at the door of the church; for the church sanctions what the Lord strictly forbade, and she sets the example to the world. If the church had not intoxicated the world with the wine of her false doctrines, the plain truths of the Bible would powerfully move the public mind. But the world seems hopelessly drunken with the wine of Babylon.


At the time of the First Angel's Message, the people of God were in Babylon; or the announcement of the fall of Babylon, and the cry, "Come out of her, my people, " is made after the first proclamation has been heard. Here also we have a most decisive testimony that Babylon includes Protestant as well as Catholic churches.

It is certain that the people of God, at the time of the preaching of the hour of his Judgment, were in all the popular churches; and this fact is a most striking testimony as to what constitutes the great city of confusion. In a word, Paul has well described the Babylon of the Apocalypse, and the duty of the people of God with reference to it, in 2 Tim. 3:1-5: "This know also, that in the last days perilous times shall come; for men shall be lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy, without natural affection, truce-breakers, false accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are good, traitors, heady, high-minded, lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God; having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof; from such turn away. " Who would dare to limit this description to the Catholic Church?

The preaching of the hour of God's Judgment and the immediate coming of the Lord, was at once the test of the church, and the means by which she might have been healed. It was the test of the church in that it showed that her heart was with the world, and not with her Lord; for when the evidences of his immediate advent were set before her, she rejected the tidings with scorn, and cleaved still closer unto the world. But it might have been the means of healing her.

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Had she received it, what a work would it have wrought for her? Her unscriptural hope of a temporal reign, her false view of the second advent, her unrighteous justification of oppression and wickedness, her pride and conformity to the world, would all have been swept away. Alas! that this warning from Heaven was rejected! The last means that Heaven had in store to heal Babylon having failed, God gave her up to her heart's desires.


It is well known that in immediate connection with the proclamation of the hour of God's Judgment, the announcement of the fall of Babylon was everywhere made throughout our land. Its connection with the advent message is well expressed by the following from Elder Himes, dated McConnellsville, O. , Aug. 29, 1844:-

" When we commenced the work of giving the `midnight cry' with Bro. Miller, in 1840, he had been lecturing nine years. During that time he stood almost alone. But his labors had been incessant and effectual in awakening professors of religion to the true hope of God's people, and the necessary preparation for the advent of the Lord, as also the awakening of all classes of the unconverted to a sense of their lost condition, and the duty of immediate repentance and conversion to God as a preparation to meet the Bridegroom in peace at his coming. These were the great objects of his labor. He made no attempt to convert men to a sect or party, in religion. Hence he labored among all parties and sects without interfering with their organization or discipline, believing that the members of the different communions could retain their standing, and at the same time prepare for the advent of their King and labor for the salvation of men in these relations until the consummation of their hope.

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When we were persuaded of the truth of the proclamation that the advent was at hand, and embraced the doctrine publicly, we entertained the same views and pursued the same course among the different sects, where we were called in the providence of God to labor. We told the ministers and churches that it was no part of our business to break them up, or to divide and distract them.

We had one distinct object, and that was to give the `cry, ' the warning of the `Judgment at the door, ' and to persuade our fellow-men to get ready for the event. Most of the ministers and churches that opened their doors to us and our brethren who were proclaiming the advent doctrine, co-operated with us till the last year. The ministry and membership who availed themselves of our labors, but had not sincerely embraced the doctrine, saw that they must either go with the doctrine, and preach and maintain it, or in the crisis which was right upon them, they would have difficulty with the decided and determined believers.

They therefore decided against the doctrine, and determined, some by one policy and some by another, to suppress the subject. This placed our brethren and sisters among them in a most trying position. Most of them loved their churches, and could not think of leaving. But when they were ridiculed, oppressed, and in various ways cut off from their former privileges and enjoyment, and when the `meat in due season' was withheld from them, and the siren song of `peace and safety' was resounded in their ears from Sabbath to Sabbath, they were soon weaned from their party predilections, and arose in the majesty of their strength, shook off the yoke, and raised the cry, `Come out of her, my people!' This state of things placed us in a trying position.

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1. Because we were near the end of our prophetic time in which we expected the Lord would gather all his people in one; and 2. We had always preached a different doctrine, and now that the circumstances had changed, it would be regarded as dishonest in us if we should unite in the cry of separation and breaking up of churches that had received us and our message. We therefore hesitated, and continued to act on our first position until the church and ministry carried the matter so far that we were obliged, in the fear of God, to take a position in defense of the truth and the down-trodden children of God. “(Adventist Review 1844)


The testimonies of the churches in 1844, relative to their fallen condition, are worthy of particular notice.
The Christian Palladium for May 5, 1844, speaks in the following mournful strain: "In every direction we hear the dolorous sound, wafting upon every breeze of heaven, chilling as the blasts from the icebergs of the north, settling like an incubus on the breasts of the timid, and drinking up the energies of the weak, - that lukewarmness, division, anarchy, and desolation are distressing the borders of Zion. "

The Religious Telescope of 1844 uses the following language: "We have never witnessed such a general declension of religion as at the present. Truly, the church should awake, and search into the cause of this affliction; for as an affliction every one who loves Zion must view it.

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When we call to mind how `few and far between' cases of true conversion are, and the almost unparalleled impenitence and hardness of sinners, we almost involuntarily exclaim, `Has God forgotten to be gracious? or is the door of mercy closed?' "


About that time, proclamations of fasts and seasons of prayer for the return of the Holy Spirit were sent out in the religious papers. Even the Philadelphia Sun, of Nov. 11, 1844, has the following: "The undersigned ministers and members of various denominations in Philadelphia and vicinity, solemnly believing that the present signs of the times - the spiritual dearth in our churches generally, and the extreme evils in the world around us - seem to call loudly on all Christians for a special season of prayer, do therefore hereby agree, by divine permission, to unite in a week of special prayer to Almighty God, for the outpouring of his Holy Spirit on our city, our country, and the world. "

Prof. Finney, editor of the Oberlin Evangelist, Feb. 1844, says: "We have had the facts before our minds that, in general, the Protestant churches of our country, as such, were either apathetic or hostile to nearly all the moral reforms of the age. There are partial exceptions, yet not enough to render the fact otherwise than general. We have also another corroborated fact: the almost universal absence of revival influence in the churches. The spiritual apathy is almost all-pervading, and is fearfully deep; so the religious press of the whole land testifies. Very extensively, church members are becoming devotees of fashion - joining hands with the ungodly in parties of pleasure, in dancing, in festivities, etc.

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But we need not expand this painful subject. Suffice it that the evidence thickens and rolls heavily upon us, to show that the churches generally are becoming sadly degenerate. They have gone very far from the Lord, and he has withdrawn himself from them. "

It may be said that our views of the moral fall and spiritual dearth of the churches are shown to be incorrect by the great revivals of 1858. Of the fruit of these revivals let the leading Congregational and Baptist papers of Boston bear testimony.

Says the Congregationalist for Nov. , 1858: "The revival piety of our churches is not such that one can confidently infer, from its mere existence, its legitimate, practical fruits. It ought, for example, to be as certain, after such a shower of grace, that the treasuries of our benevolent societies would be filled, as it is after a plentiful rain that the streams will swell in their channels. But the managers of our societies are bewailing the feebleness of the sympathy and aid of the churches.

"There is another and sadder illustration of the same general truth. The Watchman and Reflector recently stated that there had never been, among the Baptists, so lamentable a spread of church dissension as prevails at present. And the sad fact is mentioned that this sin infects the very churches 38 which shared most largely in the late revival. And the still more melancholy fact is added, that these alienations date back their origin, in most cases, to the very midst of that scene of awakening. Even a glance at the weekly journals of our own denomination will evince that the evil is by no means confined to the Baptists. Our own columns have, perhaps, never borne so humiliating a record of contentions and ecclesiastical litigations as during the last few months. "

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A Presbyterian pastor, of Belfast, Ireland (1858), uses the following language respecting the recent revivals in this country: "The determination to crush all ministers who say a word against their national sin [slavery], the determination to suffocate and suppress the plain teachings of Scripture, can be persisted in and carried out at the very time these New York Christians are expecting the religious world to hail their revivals. Until the wretchedly degraded churches of America do the work of God in their own land, they have no spiritual vitality to communicate to others; their revivals are in the religious world what their flaunted cries of liberty, intermingled with the groans of the slave, are in the political. "(N.Y. Independent Dec. 1959)

During the time of the great Irish revival of 1859, the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of Ireland held its session in Belfast. Says the Belfast News-Letter, of Sept. 30: "Here in this venerable body of ministers and elders, we find two ministers openly giving each other the lie, and the whole General Assembly turned into a scene of confusion bordering upon a riot. "

These sad facts need no comment. In Ireland the ministers of the gospel are unable to meet in General Assembly without a riot among themselves; in America, prayers for the enslaved were not allowed in the revival meetings. No wonder that fruit of genuine piety is difficult to be found.

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How unlike what God designed that his people should be, has this great city become! The church of Christ was to be the light of the world, a city set upon a hill, which could not be hid. Matt. 5:14-17. But instead of this, his professed people have united with the world, and joined in affinity with it. This unlawful union of the church and the world (James 4:4) has resulted in her rejection by God; for how can the God of truth and holiness recognize as his people those who, in addition to their departure from their Lord, have rejected with scorn the tidings of his speedy coming?


In Rev. 18 the message announcing the fall of Babylon is presented again, with additions, showing, as we understand, that there is in the future a mighty movement to take place on this subject. We have no doubt that God has many dear saints united with the various bodies of professed Christians. Those, we believe, will yet hear the call given in Rev. 18:4. There is, however, one important fact which demonstrates that it was the providence of God which caused the proclamation of the first and second angels' messages within a few years past. Rev. 14:6-8.

Chap. 18, in presenting again the message respecting the fall of Babylon, informs us that she has become the hold of foul spirits, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird. As a demonstration that we are correct in regard to the application of Rev. 14, let the present movement respecting the spirits of the dead answer. An innumerable host of demons are spreading themselves over the whole country, flooding the churches and religious bodies of the land to a very great extent. The immortality of the soul, a doctrine which is held by almost every church in the world, is the basis and foundation of all their work. This extraordinary movement clearly evinces the rapid approach of the hour of temptation that shall come on all the world, to try them that dwell on the earth.

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It is an interesting fact that the judgment on the great harlot, which is so fully described in Rev. 18, is shown to John by one of the seven angels having the seven vials filled with the wrath of God. Rev. 17:1. From chap. 16:17-21, we learn that the judgment on the harlot Babylon is inflicted by the angel having the seventh vial. Hence we may justly conclude that the angel who shows John the judgment of Babylon, is that one of the seven who has her judgment to inflict; in other words, it is the angel who has the seventh vial. It is agreed on all hands that the seventh angel of Rev. 16 is yet future. It follows, therefore, that Rev. 18, which describes the judgment on Babylon and gives the call to come out of her, belongs to the future. It is manifest that Babylon is rapidly becoming the hold of foul spirits, and of unclean and hateful birds. The call to come out of her is made while her plagues are immediately impending.


The destruction of Babylon, as described in Rev. 18, takes place under the seventh vial; for it is under that vial that she comes in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath. Rev. 16:17-21. The people of God are called out of her just before the seven last plagues are poured out. Those plagues are future, as we shall hereafter prove. Hence it is certain that Rev. 18 cannot be applied to the events of the sixteenth century. It is manifest that the destruction of Babylon begins before the great battle takes place; for the kings are spared to witness her destruction (Rev. 18); but in the great battle they are all destroyed. Rev. 19. While the saints eat the marriage supper, they behold the smoke of her burning; and in response to the call of Rev. 18:20, they rejoice over her. Rev. 19:1-9.

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Babylon is to be thrown down with violence, as a millstone is cast into the great deep, and she is to be utterly burned with fire. If this utter destruction were her "fall", there would be no need of the second angel's proclamation to announce the fact; for her destruction is to be witnessed by the kings and merchants, and by every ship-master, and by all the company in ships, and by sailors, and by as many as trade by sea. This is conclusive proof that the fall and destruction of Babylon are not the same, and that Babylon itself is not a literal city; for its destruction causes results that the destruction of no city on the globe could cause. It is evident from what has been said, that the destruction of Babylon takes place in immediate connection with the second advent. This fact is of itself a sufficient refutation of the view that locates the call, "Come out of her, my people, " in the future age; for Babylon is destroyed at the very commencement of that age.


The duty of the people of God is plainly expressed, "Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues. " Her sins have reached unto heaven, and God has remembered her iniquities; she has united herself to the kings of earth, and confided in the arm of flesh, and not in Jehovah.

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For the sake of this protection, she has smoothed down the terrible threatenings of God's word against sin, and has thrown the mantle of religion over some of the basest of human crimes. As an instance, we will cite the Fugitive Slave Law, which during its existence had the sanction of many of the leading doctors of divinity. Pride, love of the world, and departure from God too plainly identify the Babylon of the Apocalypse with St. Paul's description of the popular church of the last days. 2 Tim. 3:1-5. "From such, " says the apostle, "turn away. " If we would not partake of her sins, and thus share in the plagues that are about to be poured out upon her, we must heed the voice from heaven, "Come out of her, my people. "

The moral fall of the Protestant churches in general brings us to the point where we are able to say, in the language of the Second Angel's Message, "Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city. "

This was not true of all Babylon before this moral fall had been witnessed, and consequently the second message would not have been appropriate if it had been preached before 1844. Only two divisions of Babylon had fallen before this time. The Bible presents a testimony of the most solemn character concerning Babylon. It must be the duty of God's servants to give this testimony at the 41 proper time, even as God has given it in his word. This testimony comes from God, and is not dependent upon the will of man, and therefore no person should be offended when it is presented. If that which is said of Babylon is true of a particular denomination, then that people should receive the light with gratitude, and bring forth the fruits of repentance.

But if any church is found to whom this testimony is not applicable, let them be grateful that they do not belong to this great city, and let them not complain that this most solemn message is preached for the benefit of the vast numbers for whom it is appropriate. The servants of God are called to announce the principles of truth with faithfulness, and each one must apply them in his own case according to truth in the fear of God.

Now, lest any should deny that the Greek and the Protestant churches are included in Babylon, we invite attention to the following facts: It is evident, from the terms of this prophecy, that Babylon is composed of people who profess to be Christians. It is also evident that a great part of the true people of God are found in Babylon, even in the last days. But Babylon is a harlot because of her unlawful union with the kings of the earth; and as the result of this union she has corrupted the truth of God. Now we will prove that the Greek Church is one of the three grand divisions of Babylon. The Catholic Church became a harlot at an epoch at least as early as the time of Constantine. History records the acts of no other civil ruler who has wrought so great changes in the church as did Constantine. He gave a new form of government to the church, having for his model the government of the empire. He created offices in the church unknown to the New Testament, and he corrupted the doctrines and practices of the church. In his time the Greek Church and the Roman Church formed together the one so-called Catholic Church.

This great church continued to corrupt itself more and more from century to century. Its history is full of examples of unlawful union with the kings of the earth. But in the eleventh century, as the result of the long quarrel between the bishop of Rome and the bishop of Constantinople concerning the supremacy, the Catholic Church was divided into two churches, the Roman Catholic Church, and the Greek Catholic Church. After this separation, the Greek Catholic Church continued to be what the general Catholic Church had been before the division. The separation did not cause the Greek Church to renounce a single error of the great Catholic Church, nor to cease her unlawful connection with the kings of the earth. If the Catholic Church was Babylon before it was thus divided, then the Greek Church was, before that separation from Rome, a very considerable part of 42 the great city of Babylon. The principal difference between the Roman Church and the Greek Church since the separation is, that the Greek Church has simply retained the errors held by all in common before the separation, without making much addition to those errors, and without taking a very active part in persecuting others; while the Roman Church has added several other errors to her system of doctrine, particularly such as have respect to the power of the pope, and she has been very active in persecuting those who have not submitted to her authority. The Greek Church is less guilty than the church of Rome; but to deny that she forms an important division of Babylon, would be to deny that Babylon existed before the great schism of the eleventh century.

Five hundred years after the separation of the Greek and Roman churches bring us to the Reformation of the sixteenth century, which separated several great nations from the communion of the church of Rome. This is the second grand separation from Rome. Since that time, the religious world has existed in three grand divisions, the Greek Catholics, the Roman Catholics, and the Protestants. The separation of the Greeks from Rome was not characterized by a reformation; it is therefore certain that the Greeks continued to be a part of Babylon. But the separation of the Protestants from Rome was characterized by the renunciation of several great errors. It is therefore worthy of our attention to determine carefully whether the Protestants made such a reform as would cause them to cease to be a part of Babylon. They rejected the authority of the pope and of the church of Rome; they appealed to the Bible as the supreme rule of faith; they exposed many errors and sins of the church of Rome; and they taught justification by faith.

But to leave Babylon it is not enough to separate from the communion of those who sustain her errors. It is necessary to renounce these errors by receiving the truth of God, and it is necessary, also, to renounce the sins of Babylon by true repentance. If the Protestants returned to the purity and simplicity of the New Testament, then they ceased to be a part of Babylon; but if they retained a considerable number of the essential errors and sins of Babylon, and contented themselves to preserve their part of the old city, after a partial purification, instead of building anew after the divine model, then they have never ceased to be a part of Babylon.

The churches of the New Testament were composed of those only who repented of their sins, believed on the Lord Jesus Christ, and were buried with him in baptism. But the churches which compose the Romish apostasy are organized on a plan essentially different from that of the apostles. By means of infant baptism, 43 the entire population is brought into the church; the church and the world are no longer distinct, and the church becomes an assembly of unconverted men. This confusion of the world and the church is one of the essential errors which made a Babylon of the Catholic church.

Now it is a painful fact that the reformers did not see it necessary to commence at the foundation, and form churches of converted persons only; on the contrary, they positively refused to do this, but their first churches were simply Romish churches which had accepted the doctrines of the Reformation, but which were composed of persons admitted by infant baptism, the larger part of whom were unacquainted with Christian experience; and the churches afterward raised up by them were of a similar character, because formed on the same model.


Now we offer a second decisive proof that the Reformation was not sufficiently complete to deliver the Protestants from Babylon. The unlawful union of Church and State is the natural consequence of the prevalence of infant baptism; for that human ordinance made the terms church and world two names for one thing. This shows how appropriate is the term Babylon as the name for this city of confusion. But Babylon is called a prostitute because of her unlawful union with the kings of the earth. This criminal union is seen when by their royal authority they exercise their influence informing the doctrines of the church, in giving form to the service and worship of God, and in creating offices in the church, and filling them with their favorites; and when the church not only accepts all this, but even sanctions the criminal practices of kings, so that she may profit by their revenues, and that she may use this power to persecute those who do not accept her dogmas.

Was it true that the reformers separated Church and State in Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Scotland and England? Did they imitate the apostles in organizing churches without the participation of the civil power? - By no means. In all these countries the civil power has exercised a strong influence in the formation of the confessions of faith, and in deciding what should be the character and manner of the worship, in creating church offices and in selecting the persons to fill those offices, and even in determining who should be the ministers of the word of God. These things are carried so far in England that the king or queen is recognized as the head of the church. This unlawful union of Church and State made Babylon a prostitute, and the reformers did not dissolve this union, but perpetuated it.

The ordinances of the church have been corrupted in Babylon. To leave Babylon it is necessary to turn from these corruptions, and to receive the 44 pure ordinances of the New Testament church. Did the reformers see the necessity of doing this? - They did not. They were satisfied with the baptism they had received in their infancy from the Catholic priests, and they perpetuated this corruption of the ordinance of baptism in the Protestant churches. They served in the work of the Christian ministry by virtue of their ordination as Catholic priests, and they never considered it important to be set apart to the holy ministry by converted men. They were satisfied with that which they had received from Rome.

Even the bishops and archbishops of the ancient Catholic Church of England have been perpetuated in the Church of England and in the Episcopal Church of America, and these churches pretend to be the Catholic Church, or rather, grand divisions of that church, because they can trace their bishops back to the apostles through the long line of popes.

These things show that the Reformation formed the third grand division of Babylon, instead of establishing a church upon the model of the ancient apostolic church. This third division is much less soiled with error than are the other two divisions, but it is not clean in the sight of God. Since the Reformation, other Protestant churches have arisen, having less of papal errors than the first reformed churches. But a serious error which is at the foundation of the great Babylonian apostasy is found in nearly all the Protestant churches. That great apostasy has virtually annulled the commandment which forbids graven images, and the commandment which commands men to sanctify the seventh day in memory of the Creator's rest.

The action of the church of Rome with respect to the first of these commandments was considered by the reformers a just ground for separation from that church, and yet nearly all the Protestant churches have perpetuated the action of that great apostasy with respect to the fourth commandment. They violate the fourth commandment, and teach men so; or rather, they make void the commandment of God to keep the tradition of the elders. They set aside the Sabbath of the Lord that they may keep the festival day of the sun; and in thus violating the fourth commandment, they actually violate the entire law of God. No church has a right to consider itself apostolic while it violates the commandments of God. So long as a church does this, the stain of apostasy is upon her, and in this respect she is Babylonian rather than apostolic.

Though the account of the judgment upon Babylon in Rev. 18 speaks of Babylon as if she were one city, yet we learn from Rev. 16:19 that Babylon will be divided into three parts before she receives her punishment. This seems to indicate that these three parts are not alike guilty, and that God makes this division that he may punish each part according to the light which it has had, and the crimes which it has committed. It is therefore not unreasonable to conclude that Babylon is now composed of three grand sections, which are culpable in different degrees, and that God will judge each according to its deserts. The Roman Catholic Church, having its seat at Rome, and having once had the jurisdiction of the entire ten kingdoms, and now of the greater part of them, is without doubt the central section of this great city; but we have convincing proof that there are also two other sections of Babylon, and that God will punish each as it deserves.

The fall of this great city is announced after the third and last section has fallen. It is only then we are able to say in truth that Babylon is fallen. The place assigned to this proclamation in prophecy is the only place suitable for it. For us to be able to leave Babylon, it is necessary that the angel of God should illuminate the earth with his glory (Rev. 18:1, 2), and thus dissipate the darkness which its errors have caused.

This angel accomplishes his work in intimate connection with the angel who announces that the hour of God's Judgment is come, and with that other angel who preaches the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus. It is at the time of these messages that the people of God are called out of Babylon, - a proof conclusive that the greater part are in Babylon when this proclamation is made. The coming of Christ must be preceded by a work which shall establish the primitive purity, and this work must be accomplished by the three angels. Consequently, the proclamation concerning Babylon pertains to the end of this dispensation.

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